Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching

The “public domain” translation of St. Irenaeus’ Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching (written c. 190 A.D.) that is given below has been revised to be more “reader/user friendly.” Irenaeus gives us a brief Christian exposition of Old Testament prophecy, and he is much indebted to Justin Martyr (see Justin’s First Apology and Dialogue with Trypho). However, Irenaeus has also developed Justin’s thoughts in some slightly different ways. For example, Irenaeus interprets “Wisdom” (Prov 8) as being the Holy Spirit, thus showing a degree of independence in putting forth some different interpretations. Yet, Irenaeus is clearly borrowing from the same tradition that Justin knew. Irenaeus also gives some slightly different interpretations here in The Demonstration, from the interpretations that he gave of those same passages in his earlier work in Against Heresies. For example, in para. 2 below, Irenaeus says that it was the pre-incarnate Christ who spoke to Moses in Exodus 3:14, whereas in Against Heresies, Book 3, chap 6, para. 2, he seems to say it was God the Father who spoke to Moses in Exodus 3:14. Another writer that Irenaeus might be indebted to is Theophilus of Antioch (Theophilus to Autolycus), who may be the earliest writer on record to use the word “Trinity,” (or “Triad”) and who also, at times, at least implies that “Wisdom” is the Holy Spirit, but then at other times says that “Wisdom” is the Son.



















(Note: The preface is posted here exactly as found online, including any mistakes)

EUSEBIUS in his Ecclesiastical History tells us that in addition to his great work Against Heresies St Irenaeus wrote A Discourse in Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching. This work was entirely lost sight of: no one seems ever to have quoted a word of it. But it has quite recently reappeared in an Armenian manuscript together with Books IV and V of the greater work. The Armenian translation proves to be a fairly close rendering of the original Greek.

What Irenaeus meant by the Apostolic Preaching can be seen from his larger work. Although the exact expression does not seem to occur there, we have its equivalent, “the Preaching of the Apostles” (III, iii. 2), and also the parallel phrases, “the Tradition of the Apostles” (III, iii. 4) and “the Preaching of the Truth” (I, iii. 1; III, iii. 4). Moreover, in I, i. 20 we read that “he who holds the canon (or rule) of the truth without deviation, which he received through his baptism,” will be able to escape all the snares of heresy: and in the Demonstration (c. 3.) we have closely parallel words which also refer to the baptismal faith. Although it was not until much later that the baptismal confession came to be called the Apostles’ Creed, it was already regarded as a summary of the essential elements of the Apostolic message. Its form varied in some details in different Churches, but its structure was everywhere the same, for it had grown up on the basis of the baptismal formula.

What Irenaeus undertakes in the present work is to set out the main points of this Apostolic message, which, as he has explained in his greater work (III, iii. I ff.), has been handed down in the Church by the successions of the bishops and is the same in substance in all parts of the world, and to demonstrate its truth more especially from the sacred scriptures of the Old Testament. This argument from prophecy was the earliest form of Christian evidence; and though it does not appeal to us with equal force to-day, and we find it hard to be patient with some of the proofs which seemed to be convincing in the earliest times, we must yet recognize that it was a true instinct which claimed the Jewish scriptures as the heritage of the Christian Church, and surmounted by means of allegorical interpretations those serious difficulties which led many Christians to wish to cast them aside altogether.

The words of Bishop Westcott in reference to the methods of the schoolmen of the Middle Ages, are applicable also to these earlier teachers: “Many of the arguments which they use appear to us frivolous and pointless. It requires a serious effort to enter into them with a sympathetic intelligence. But the effort is worth making. Conclusions which rest upon arbitrary assumptions as to the symmetries of things witness in an imperfect fashion to a deep sense of a divine order in creation; and we do injustice to those who draw them if we allow even the greatest errors of expression and form to blind us to the nobility of the conception which they embody most inadequately” (Ep. of St John, “The Gospel of Creation,” pp. 276 f.).

The wonder of Irenaeus is the largeness of his outlook. No theologian had arisen since St Paul and St John who had grasped so much of the purpose of God for His world. “The Making of Man,” to borrow Tennyson’s great phrase, is his constant theme. Even though he was, forced to be controversial, he was never merely negative; and the last of his books Against Heresies ends on the keynote of the whole—that man shall at length be made “after the image and likeness of God.” This is to him the meaning of all history; and for that reason the center point of history is the Incarnation. So Christ came “to link up the end with the beginning,” or in St Paul’s words, (which Irenaeus never tires of repeating,) “to gather up into one all things” in Himself.

I have retained the chapter divisions of the first editors and translators of the Armenian text. The references to the work Against Heresies are to Harvey’s edition (Cambridge, 1857). Though I have not everywhere reproduced the double renderings which are so frequent in the Armenian, I have made the translation sufficiently literal to serve the general needs of the patristic student, even at the cost of some clumsiness of expression. In the Introduction and Notes I have been at some pains to bring out the indebtedness of Irenaeus to Justin Martyr; and in pursuance of the same end I have devoted a section of the Introduction to the teaching of both these writers in regard to the Holy Spirit.



The Deanery,

Wells, Somerset, Oct. 1919.


Robinson’s lengthy & detailed Introduction can be read on-line at either of the two links:





(written c. 190 A.D.)

1. Knowing, my beloved Marcianus,[1] your desire to walk in godliness, which alone leads man to life eternal, I rejoice with you and make my prayer that you may preserve your faith entire and so be pleasing to God who made you. I wish that it were possible for us to be always together, to help each other and to lighten the labor of our earthly life by continual conversation together on the things that profit. But, since at this present time we are parted from one another in the body, yet according to our power we will not fail to speak with you a little by writing, and to show forth, in brief, the preaching of the truth for the confirmation of your faith. We send you, as it were, a manual of essentials, that by little, you may attain to much, learning in short space all the parts of the body of the truth, and receiving, in brief, the demonstration of the things of God. So shall it be fruitful to your own salvation, and you shall put to shame all who teach falsehood, and bring with all confidence our sound and pure teaching to everyone who desires to understand it. For one [i.e. singular] is the way leading upwards for all who see, lightened with heavenly light: but many and dark and contrary are the ways of them that see not. This [one, singular] way leads to the kingdom of heaven, uniting man to God: but those [many other] ways bring down to death, separating man from God. For this reason, it is needful for you, and for all who care for their own salvation, to make your course unswerving, firm and sure by means of faith, that you falter not, nor be retarded [i.e. slowed, hindered, held back] and detained in material desires, nor turn aside and wander from the right.

2. Now, since man is a living being, made up of both soul and flesh, he must needs exist by both of these: and, whereas from both of them offences come, purity of the flesh consists of the restraining abstinence from all shameful things and all unrighteous deeds, and purity of the soul consists of the keeping faith towards God intact and pure—adding nothing to it, nor taking anything away. For godliness is obscured and dulled by the soiling and the staining of the flesh, and is broken and polluted and no longer pure, if falsehood enter into the soul: but it will keep itself in its beauty and its measure, when truth is steadfast in the soul and purity [is steadfast] in the flesh. For what does it profit a person if they know the truth in words, but then also pollute their flesh and perform the works of evil? Or what profit can purity of the flesh bring, if truth is not also in the soul? For the purity of the soul and the purity of the flesh rejoice with one another and are united and in union with one another to bring man face to face with God. Therefore, the Holy Spirit says by David [Ps 1:1]: Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly: that is, the counsel of the nations which know not God: for those are ungodly who do not worship the God that truly is. And therefore, the Word says to Moses [Ex 3:14][2]: I am He that is; but they that do not worship the God that is, these are the ungodly. And hath not stood in the way of sinners [Ps 1:1]: but sinners are those who have the knowledge of God and do not keep His commandments; that is, disdainful scorners. And hath not sat in the seat of the pestilential [Ps 1:1 LXX]: now, the pestilential are those who, by wicked and perverse doctrines, corrupt not only themselves, but others also. For the seat is a symbol of teaching. All such people then, are the heretics: they sit in the seats of the pestilential, and all the people who receive the venom of their doctrine are corrupted.

3. Now, that we may not suffer anything of this kind, we must needs hold the rule of the faith without deviation, and do the commandments of God [Rev 22:14; Eccl 12:13], believing in God and fearing Him as Lord and loving Him as Father. Now this doing is produced by faith: for Isaiah says [Is 7:9 LXX]: If ye believe not, neither shall ye understand. And faith is produced by the truth; for faith rests on things that truly are. For in things that are, as they are, we believe; and believing in things that are, as they forever are, we keep firm our confidence in them. Since then, faith is the perpetuation of our salvation, we must necessarily apply much care & effort to the maintenance thereof, in order that we may have a true comprehension of the things that are. Now faith occasions this for us; even as the Elders, the disciples of the Apostles, have handed down to us. First of all, faith commands us to bear in mind that we have received baptism for the remission of sins [Acts 2:38], in the name of God the Father, and in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who was incarnate and died and rose again, and in the Holy Spirit of God [Matt 28:19]. And that this baptism is the seal [Eph 1:13; 4:30; 2 Cor 1:22] of eternal life, and is the new birth [Jn 3:3, 5; Titus 3:5] unto God, that we should no longer be the sons of mortal men, but of the eternal and perpetual God; and that what is everlasting and continuing is made God[3] [deification; glorification; (apo)theosis?]; and [God] is over all things that are made, and all things are put under Him; and all the things that are put under Him are made His own; for God is not ruler and Lord over the things of another, but over His own; and all things are God’s; and therefore, God is Almighty, and all things are of God.

4. For it is necessary that things that are made should have the beginning of their making from some great cause; and the beginning of all things is God. For He Himself was not made by any, and by Him all things were made. And therefore, it is right, first of all, to believe that there is One God, the Father, who made and fashioned all things, and made what was not that it should be, and who, containing all things, alone is uncontained. Now among all things is this world of ours, and in the world is man: so then, this world also was formed by God.

5. Thus then, there is shown forth One God, the Father, not made, invisible, creator of all things; above whom there is no other God, and after whom there is no other God [cf. Is 43:10]. And, since God is rational, therefore, by (the) Word [Logos] He created the things that were made; and God is Spirit, and by (the) Spirit He adorned all things: as also the prophet says [Ps 33:6]: By the word of the Lord were the heavens established, and by his spirit all their power. Since then, the Word establishes, that is to say, gives body, and grants the reality of being, and the Spirit gives order and form to the diversity of the powers; rightly and fittingly is the Word called ‘the Son,’ and the Spirit called ‘the Wisdom’ of God.[4] Well, also, does Paul, His apostle, say [Eph 4:6]: One God, the Father, who is over all and through all and in us all. For over all is the Father; and through all is the Son, for through Him all things were made by the Father; and [Gal 4:6] in us all is the Spirit, who cries Abba Father, and fashions man into the likeness of God [2 Cor 3:18]. Now the Spirit shows forth the Word, and therefore the prophets announced the Son of God; and the Word utters the Spirit, and therefore is Himself the announcer of the prophets, and leads and draws man to the Father.

6. This, then, is the order of the rule of our faith, and the foundation of the building [i.e. the Church—1 Cor 3:9], and the stability of our way of life: God, the Father, not made, not material, invisible; one God, the creator of all things: this is the first point [lit. “head”] of our faith. The second point is: The Word of God, Son of God, Christ Jesus our Lord, who was manifested to the prophets according to the form of their prophesying and according to the method of the dispensation of the Father: through whom all things were made; who also at the end of the times, to complete and gather up [Eph 1:10] all things, was made man among men, visible and tangible, in order to abolish death and show forth life and produce a community of union between God and man. And the third point is: The Holy Spirit, through whom the prophets prophesied, and the fathers learned the things of God, and the righteous were led forth into the way of righteousness [Prov 8:20]; and who in the end of the times was poured out in a new way[5] [Acts 2?] upon mankind in all the earth, renewing man unto God.

7. And for this reason, the baptism of our regeneration [Titus 3:5] proceeds through these three points [lit. “heads”—triune baptism: Matt 28:19]: God the Father bestowing on us regeneration through His Son by the Holy Spirit. For as many as carry (in them) the Spirit of God are led to the Word, that is to the Son; and the Son brings them to the Father; and the Father causes them to possess incorruption. Without the Spirit, it is not possible to behold the Word of God, nor without the Son can any draw near to the Father, for the knowledge of the Father is the Son, and the knowledge of the Son of God is through the Holy Spirit; and, according to the good pleasure of the Father, the Son ministers and dispenses the Spirit to whomsoever the Father wills and as He wills.

8. And by the Spirit, the Father is called Most High and Almighty and Lord of hosts; that we may learn, concerning God, that it is He who is creator of heaven and earth and all the world, and maker of angels and men, and Lord of all, through whom all things exist and by whom all things are sustained; merciful, compassionate and very tender, good, just, the God of all, both of Jews and of Gentiles, and of them that believe. To them that believe, He is as Father, for in the end of the times, He opened up the covenant of adoption; to the Jews, as Lord and Lawgiver, for in the intermediate times [of the Mosaic dispensation], when man forgot God and departed and revolted from Him, He brought them into subjection by the Law, that they might learn that they had for Lord the maker and creator, who also gives the breath of life, and whom we ought to worship day and night: and to the Gentiles as maker and creator and almighty: and to all alike sustainer and nourisher and king and judge; for none shall escape and be delivered from His judgment, neither Jew nor Gentile, nor believer [i.e. Christian] that has sinned, nor angel: but they who now reject His goodness shall know His power in judgment, according to that which the blessed apostle says [Rom 2:4-6]: Not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance; but according to thy hardness and impenitent heart thou treasurest up for thyself wrath in the day of wrath and of the revelation of the righteous judgment of God, who shall render to every man according to his works. This is He who is called in the Law [Ex 3:6, 16] the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, the God of the living [Matt 22:32]; although the sublimity and greatness of this God is unspeakable.

9. Now this world is encompassed by seven heavens,[6] in which dwell powers and angels and archangels, doing service to God, the Almighty and Maker of all things: not as though He was in need, but that they may not be idle and unprofitable and ineffectual. Accordingly, the Spirit of God is also varied or numerous concerning His indwelling [or “operation”], and in seven forms of service [or “ministrations”; 1 Cor 12:5], He is reckoned, by the prophet Isaiah, as resting on the Son of God, that is the Word, in His coming as man [Is 11:2-3 LXX]. The Spirit of God, he says, shall rest upon him, the Spirit of [1] wisdom and of [2] understanding, the Spirit of [3] counsel and of [4] might, (the Spirit of [5] knowledge) and of [6] godliness; the Spirit of [7] the fear of God shall fill him. Now the heaven which is first from above, and encompasses the rest, is (that of) wisdom; and the second from it, of understanding; and the third, of counsel; and the fourth, reckoned from above, (is that) of might; and the fifth, of knowledge; and the sixth, of godliness; and the seventh, this firmament of ours, is full of the fear of that Spirit which gives light to the heavens. For, as the pattern (of this), Moses received the seven-branched candlestick [Ex 25:37; 37:23], that shined continually in the holy place; for, as a pattern of the heavens, he received this service, according to that which the Word spoke to him [Ex 25:9, 40; Heb 8:5; Acts 7:44]: Thou shalt make (it) according to all the pattern of the things which thou hast seen in the mount.

10. Now this God [i.e. the Father] is glorified by His Word, who is His Son, continually, and by the Holy Spirit, who is the Wisdom of the Father of all:[7] and the power(s) of these, (namely) of the Word and Wisdom, which are called ‘Cherubim’ and ‘Seraphim,’[8] with unceasing voices glorify God; and every created thing that is in the heavens offers glory to God the Father of all [cf. Rev 5:13]. He, by His Word, has created the whole world, and in the world are the angels; and to all the world He has given laws concerning in which part each particular thing [angels & men—Deut 32:8; cf. Dan 1020f; 12:1] should abide, and according to that which is determined by God, should not pass their bounds, each fulfilling his appointed task.

11. But man He formed with His own hands [i.e. His own Son & Spirit],[9] taking from the earth that which was purest and finest, and mingling, in degree, His own power with the earth. For He traced His own form on the formation [Lit. plasma or plasmatio—i.e. of man], that that which should be seen should be of divine form: because man was formed (as) the image of God and was set on the earth. And that man might become living, God breathed on his face the breath of life; that both for the breath and for the formation man should resemble or be similar to God. Moreover, man was free and self-controlled, being made by God for this end, that he might rule all those things that were upon the earth. And this great, created world, prepared by God before the formation of man, was given to man as his place, containing all things within itself. Also, in this world, there were the servants [angels] of that God who formed all things, each being given tasks; and the steward [archangel], who was set over all his fellow servants, received this place. Now, the servants were angels, and the steward was the archangel.

12. Now, having made man [Adam] lord of the earth and all things in it, God secretly appointed him lord also of those [angels] who were servants in it. The angels, however, were in their perfection; but the lord [i.e. man/Adam] was (but) small; for he was a child; and it was necessary that he should grow, and so come to (his) perfection. And, so that the man might have his nourishment and growth, having the best of foods, God prepared him a place better than this world, excelling in air, beauty, light, food, plants, fruit, water, and all other necessaries of life, and its name is Paradise [2 Cor 12:4; Luke 23:43; Rev 2:7]. And so beautiful and good was this Paradise [the Garden; Gen 2-3], that the Word of God visited there very frequently, and walked and talked [Gen 3:8] with the man, depicting and picturing beforehand the things that would take place in the future, (namely) that He [the Word of God] should dwell with man and talk with him, and should be with men, teaching them righteousness. But Adam, the man, was still a child, not yet having his understanding perfected; and also, for this reason, he was easily led astray by the deceiver.

13. And, while man dwelt in Paradise, God brought before him all living things and commanded him to give names to them all; and whatsoever Adam called a living soul, that was its name [Gen 2:19]. And God also decided to make a helper for the man: for thus God said [Gen 2:18 LXX], It is not good for the man to be alone: let us make for him a helper suitable for him. For among all the other living things there was not found a helper equal and comparable and like to Adam. But God Himself [Gen 2:21 LXX] cast a trance upon Adam and made him sleep; and, that work might be accomplished from work, since there was no sleep in Paradise, this was brought upon Adam by the will of God; and God [Gen 2:21-22 LXX] took one of Adam’s ribs and filled up the flesh in its place, and the rib which He took He made into a woman; and so He brought her to Adam; and he [Adam] seeing (her) said [Gen 2:23]: This is now bone of my bone, flesh of my flesh: she shall be called woman, because she was taken from her husband.

14. And Adam and Eve—for that is the name of the woman—were naked, and were not ashamed [Gen 2:25]; for there was in them an innocent and childlike mind, and it was not possible for them to conceive and understand anything of that which by wickedness through lusts and shameful desires is born in the soul. For they were pure at that time, preserving their own nature; since they had the breath of life which was breathed on their creation: and, while this breath remains in its place and power, it has no comprehension and understanding of things that are base. And therefore, they were not ashamed, kissing and embracing each other in purity, after the manner of children.

15. But, lest man should conceive thoughts too high, and be exalted and uplifted as though he had no lord because of the authority and freedom granted to him, and so, should transgress against God his maker in not exercising moderation or restraint and in having selfish thoughts of pride in opposition to God; a law was given to him by God, in order that man might perceive that he had as lord the Lord of all. And God set him certain limitations, so that, if man would keep the commandment of God, then the man would always remain as he was, that is to say, immortal;[10] but, if he did not keep the commandment, then he would become mortal and be dissolved to earth from where his formation had been taken. Now the commandment was this [Gen 2:16-17]: Of every tree that is in the Paradise [garden—LXX] thou shalt freely eat; but of that tree alone from which is the knowledge of good and evil, of it thou shalt not eat; for in the day thou eatest, thou shalt surely die.

16. This commandment the man did not keep, but was disobedient to God, being led astray by the angel, who, for the great gifts of God which He had given to man, was envious and jealous of man [Wis 2:24],[11] and so the angel both brought himself to ruin and made man sinful, persuading him to disobey the commandment of God. Therefore, the angel, becoming by his own falsehood, the author and originator of sin, was struck down, having offended against God, and as for man, the angel caused him to be cast out from Paradise. And, because it was through the guidance of the angel’s own disposition & inclination that he had apostatized and departed from God, the angel was called Satan, according to the Hebrew word; that is, Apostate:[12] a but he is also called Slanderer. Now God cursed the serpent which carried and conveyed [or “was possessed by”?] the Slanderer; and this curse came on the serpent himself and on the angel hidden and concealed in him, even on Satan. And as for man, God put him away from His presence, removing him and making him to dwell on the way [Gen 3:24; Acts 9:2; 19:9, 23] to Paradise at that time; because the sinful are not allowed in Paradise.

17. And when they were put out of Paradise, Adam and his wife Eve fell into many troubles of distressing grief, going about with sorrow, toil, mourning and lamentation in this world. For under the beams of this sun, man tilled the earth, and it put forth thorns and thistles, the punishment of sin. Then was fulfilled that which was written [Gen 4:1-2]: Adam knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain; and after him she bore Abel. Then, the apostate angel, who led man into disobedience and made him sinful and caused his expulsion from Paradise, not content with this first evil, now worked a second evil upon the brothers; for Satan filled Cain with his spirit and made him a brother-killer. And so, Abel died, slain by his brother; signifying, from that time forward, that certain types of people should be persecuted and oppressed and slain, the unrighteous slaying and persecuting the righteous. And once this was done, God was angered yet more, and He cursed Cain. And it came to pass that all of Cain’s descendants, in successive generations, was made like Cain. And God raised up another son [Seth] to Adam, instead of Abel who was slain [Gen 4:25].

18. And for a very long time, wickedness extended and spread, and reached and laid hold upon the whole race of mankind, until a very small seed of righteousness remained among them and immoral & unlawful unions took place upon the earth, since angels were united with the daughters of men; and these women begot sons to the angels, and because of their exceeding greatness, their sons were called giants [Gen 6:2-5]. And the angels brought, as presents to their human wives, teachings of wickedness [cf. Book of Enoch],[13] in that they brought them the virtues of roots and herbs, dyeing in colors and cosmetics, the discovery of rare substances, love-potions, aversions, amours, concupiscence, constraints of love, spells of bewitchment, and all sorcery and idolatry hateful to God; by the entry of which things into the world, evil extended and spread, while righteousness was diminished and enfeebled.

19. Until judgment came upon the world from God by means of a flood, in the tenth generation from the first-formed (man); Noah alone being found righteous. And he, for his righteousness, was himself delivered, and his wife and his three sons, and the three wives of his sons, being shut up in the ark. And when destruction came upon all, both man and animals that were upon the earth, only that which was preserved in the ark escaped. Now the three sons of Noah were Shem, Ham and Japheth, from whom again the race was multiplied: for these were the beginning of mankind after the flood.

20. Now of these three sons of Noah, one fell under a curse, and the two (others) inherited a blessing by reason of their works. For the younger of them [Gen 9:24][14], who was called Ham received a curse—having mocked his father, and having been condemned of the sin of impiety because of his offense and unrighteousness against his father—and all of Ham’s descendants were also involved in the curse; and because of this, his generations after him increased and multiplied in sins. But Shem and Japheth, his brothers, because of their piety towards their father, obtained a blessing. Now the curse of Ham, that Noah, his father, cursed him with, is this: Cursed be Ham the child [the Hebrew of Gen 9:25 has “Caanaan,” the son of Ham];[15] a servant shall he be unto his brethren. And this curse came upon Ham’s many descendants which he begot upon the earth, (even) for fourteen generations. They grew up in a wild condition; and then his race was cut off by God, being delivered up to judgment. For the Canaanites and Hittites and Peresites and Hivites and Amorites and Jebusites and Gergasites and Sodomites, the Arabians also and the dwellers in Phoenicia, all the Egyptians and the Libyans [cf. Acts 2:9-11], are of the posterity of Ham, who have fallen under the curse; for the curse is of long duration over the ungodly.

21. And even as the curse passed on, so also the blessing passed on to the descendants of him who was blessed, to each in his own order. For the first of them that was blessed was Shem, being blessed in these words [Gen 9:26]: Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem; and Ham[16] shall be his servant. The power of the blessing lies in this, that the God and Lord of all should be to Shem a peculiar possession of worship. And the blessing extended and reached to Abraham, who was reckoned as descended in the tenth generation from the lineage of Shem: and therefore the Father and God of all was pleased to be called the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob; because the blessing of Shem reached out and attached itself to Abraham. Now the blessing of Japheth is given in this way [Gen 9:27]: God shall enlarge unto Japheth, and he shall dwell in the house of Shem, and Ham[17] shall be his servant. That is to say: In the end of the ages, Japheth blossomed forth, at the appearing of the Lord, through the calling of the Gentiles, when God enlarged unto them the calling; and [Ps 19:4; Rom 10:18] their sound went out into all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. The enlarging of Japheth, then, is the calling from among the Gentiles, that is to say, the Church. And he dwells in the house of Shem [Gen 9:27]; that is, in the inheritance of the fathers [i.e. of Israel], receiving in Christ Jesus the right of the firstborn. So, in the rank in which each was blessed, in that same order through his posterity, he received the fruit of the blessing [i.e. first, Shem=Israel/Jews; second, Japheth=the Gentile church].[18]

22. Now after the Flood, God made a covenant with all the world, even with every living thing of animals and of men, that He would no more destroy with a flood all that grew upon the earth. And He set them a sign (saying) [Gen 9:11-16]: When the sky shall be covered with a cloud, the bow shall be seen in the cloud; and I will remember my covenant, and will no more destroy by water every moving thing upon the earth. And He changed the food of men, now allowing them to eat flesh [Gen 9:3]: for from Adam, the first-formed, until the Flood, men ate only of seeds and the fruit of trees, and to eat flesh was not permitted to them. But since the three sons of Noah were each the beginning of a race of men, God blessed them for multiplication and increase; saying [Gen 9:1-6]: Increase and multiply, and replenish the earth and rule it; and the fear and dread of you shall be upon every living thing of animals and upon all the fowls of the air; and they shall be to you for food, even as the green herb: but the flesh with the blood of life ye shall not eat: for your blood also will I require at the hand of all beasts and at the hand of man. Whoso sheddeth a man’s blood, in return for his blood shall it be shed. For God made man the image of God; and the image of God is the Son [Col 1:15], after whose image man was made: and for this cause the Son appeared in the end of the times that He might show the image (to be) similar to Himself.[19] According to this covenant, the race of man multiplied, springing up from the seed of all three of Noah’s sons. And upon the earth was one lip, that is, “there was one language to all” [Gen 11:1 LXX].

23. And they arose and came from the land of the east; and, as they went through the land, they came upon the land of Shinar, which was exceedingly broad; where they took in hand to build a tower. They sought means thereby to go up to heaven, and to be able to leave their work as a memorial to those men who should come after them. And the building was made with baked bricks and asphalt [Gen 11:1-4]: and the boldness of their audacity went forward, as they were all of one mind and consent, and by means of one speech they served the purpose of their desires. But that the work should advance no further, God divided their tongues, that they should longer be able to understand one another. And so, they were scattered, dispersed, and spread out, and they took possession of the world and dwelt in groups and companies each according to his language [Gen 11:7-9]. This is where the diverse tribes and various languages originally came from that are now upon the earth. So then, whereas three nations of men took possession of the earth, and one of them, that of Ham, was under the curse, and two of them, those of Shem & Japheth, were under the blessing, the blessing first of all came to Shem [representing Israel], whose people dwelt in the east and occupied the land of the Chaldeans.

24. In process of tithe, that is to say, in the tenth generation after the Flood, Abraham appeared [lit. “was found”], seeking for the God who, by the blessing of his ancestor Shem, was due and proper to him. And when, urged by the eagerness of his spirit, Abraham went all about the world, searching where God is, and failed to find out, God took pity on Abraham, who alone was silently seeking Him. Therefore, God appeared to Abraham, making Himself known by the Word, as by a beam of light. For He spoke with Abraham from heaven, and said to him [Gen 12:1; Acts 7:3]: Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house; and come into the land that I will show thee, and there dwell. And Abraham believed the heavenly voice, being then of ripe age, even seventy [Heb. & LXX have “75”] years old, and having a wife; and together with her, he went forth from Mesopotamia, taking with him Lot, the son of his brother who was dead. And when he came into the land which now is called Judea, in which at that time dwelt seven tribes descended from Ham, God appeared to him in a vision and said [Gen 17:8; cf. 12:7; 13:15; 15:7]: To thee will I give this land, and to thy seed after thee, for an everlasting possession, and God told Abraham that his descendants would be strangers and sojourners in a land not their own, and would be mistreated there, being afflicted and in bondage four hundred years; and in the fourth generation would return to the place that was promised to Abraham; and that God would judge that nation which had brought his seed into bondage [Gen 15:13-16]. And, that Abraham might also know the glorious multitude of his seed, God brought him outside at night, and said [Gen 15:5]: Look upon the heaven, and behold the stars of the heaven, if thou be able to number them: so shall thy seed be. And when God saw the undoubting and unwavering certainty of Abraham’s spirit, He bore witness to Abraham, saying, as recorded in the Scriptures by the Holy Spirit: [Rom 4:3; Gen 15:6] And Abraham believed, and it was counted unto him for righteousness. And Abraham was uncircumcised when this witness by God was given; and, that the excellency of Abraham’s faith should be made known by a sign, God gave him circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of that faith which he had in uncircumcision [Rom 4:11]. And after this, there was born to him a son, Isaac, from Sarah who was barren, according to the promise of God; and Abraham circumcised Isaac [Gen 21:4], according to that which God had covenanted with him. And of Isaac was Jacob born; and in this way, the original blessing of Shem reached to Abraham, and from Abraham to Isaac, and from Isaac to Jacob, the inheritance of the Spirit being imparted to all of them: for He was called the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob [i.e. not just the God of Shem, as in Gen 9:26]. And Jacob begot twelve sons, from whom the twelve tribes of Israel were named.

25. And when famine had come upon all the earth, it happened that in Egypt alone there was food; and so Jacob, with all his seed, moved to Egypt and dwelt there: and the number of all his family that migrated to Egypt was threescore and fifteen souls [i.e. 20+20+20+15=75; see Acts 7:14; Gen 46:27 LXX]: and in four hundred years, as the prophecy had been declared beforehand, their number grew to six hundred and sixty thousand. And, it came to pass that they began to be grievously afflicted and oppressed through evil bondage, and they began to sigh and groaned to God—the God of their fathers, Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. Therefore, God brought them out of Egypt by the hand of Moses and Aaron, smiting the Egyptians with ten plagues, and in the last plague sending a destroying angel and slaying their first-born, both of man and of beast. But God saved the children of Israel from this destruction, revealing in a mystery the sufferings of Christ by the sacrifice of a lamb without spot, and giving its blood to be smeared on the houses of the Hebrews as a sure precaution. And the name of this mystery is Passion [i.e. Pascha], the source of deliverance. And dividing the Red Sea, God brought the children of Israel with all security to the wilderness; and as to the pursuing Egyptians, who followed them and entered into the sea, they were all overwhelmed; this judgment of God coming upon those who had wickedly oppressed the seed of Abraham.

26. And in the wilderness, Moses received the Law from God [Ex 31:18; 34:28; Deut 9:10], the Ten Words on tables of stone, written with the finger of God (now the finger of God is that which is stretched forth from the Father in the Holy Spirit [Luke 11:20; Matt 12:28]);[20] and so all the commandments and ordinances which Moses received from God, he then delivered them to the children of Israel to observe. And the tabernacle of witness, Moses constructed by the command of God, the visible form on earth of those things which are spiritual and invisible in the heavens, and a figure of the form of the Church, and a prophecy of things to come: in which also were the vessels and the altars of sacrifice and the ark in which he placed the tables (of the Law). And Moses appointed Aaron and his sons as priests, assigning the priesthood to all their tribe: and they were of the seed of Levi. Moreover, Moses summoned this whole tribe by the word of God to accomplish the work of service in the temple of God, and gave them the Levitical law, (to show) what, and what manner of men, they ought to be who are continually employed in performing the service of the temple of God.

27. And when they were near to the land of Canaan, which God had promised to Abraham and his seed, Moses chose a man from every tribe, and sent them to search out the land and the cities therein and the dwellers in the cities. At that time, God revealed to Moses the Name which alone is able to save them that believe thereon; and Moses changed the name of Oshea the son of Nun, one of them that were sent, and named him Jesus [Num 13:16—see explanatory footnote]:[21] and so Moses sent them forth with the power of the Name, believing that he would receive them back safe and sound through the guidance of the Name, which came to pass. Now, when they had gone and searched and enquired, they returned bringing with them a bunch of grapes; and some of the twelve who were sent caused the whole multitude to fall into fear and dismay, saying that the cities were exceedingly great and walled, and that the sons of the giants dwelt therein, so that it was (not) possible for them to take the land. And so, it happened that all the multitude wept, failing to believe that it was God who would grant them power and subjugate all to them. And they spoke evil also of the land, as not being good, and as though it were not worthwhile to undergo the danger for the sake of such a land. But two of the twelve, Jesus [Joshua] the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, tore their clothes because of the evil that was done, and tried to persuade the people not to be disheartened, nor to lose their courage—for God had given all into their hands, and the land was exceedingly good. But because the people would not believe, but only persisted in the their unbelief, God changed and altered their way, so that they would now wander desolate and oppressed by the harsh conditions of the desert. And according to the number of days that they had spied out the land, being forty in number, setting a year for each day, God kept them in the wilderness for forty years. Because of their unbelief, God counted none of those worthy to enter the land who were full grown and had understanding upon leaving Egypt—except only the two who had testified of the inheritance, Jesus [Joshua] the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh. Those who were quite young and knew not the right hand and the left upon leaving Egypt also were not held responsible. So, all the unworthy, unbelieving multitude perished and were consumed in the wilderness, receiving one by one the due reward of their lack of faith: but the children, growing up in the course of those forty years, filled up the number of those who died, taking their place among the number of God’s people.

28. When the forty years were fulfilled, the people again came near the Jordan River, and they were assembled and made ready for battle against Jericho. Here, Moses gathered the people together, and summed up all afresh, proclaiming the mighty works of God even to that day, fashioning and preparing those who had grown up in the wilderness to fear God and keep His commandments, imposing on them as it were a new legislation, adding to that which was made before. And this was called Deuteronomy: and in it were written many prophecies concerning our Lord Jesus Christ and concerning the people, and also concerning the calling of the Gentiles and concerning the kingdom.

29. And, when Moses had finished his course [i.e. his life journey or pilgrimage], God said to him [Deut 32:49-50]: Get thee up into the mountain, and die: for thou shalt not bring in my people into the land. So, he died according to the word of the Lord [Deut 34:5]; and Jesus [i.e. Joshua] the son of Nun succeeded him. He [Joshua] divided the Jordan and made the people to pass over into the land. And when he had overthrown and destroyed the seven nations that dwelt therein, he assigned to the people the temporal [i.e. the “present”—Gal 4:25] Jerusalem, where David was king, and also Solomon his son (who built the temple to the name of God, according to the likeness of the tabernacle which had been made by Moses after the pattern of the heavenly and spiritual things).

30. To this temporal Jerusalem, God sent the prophets, through the Holy Spirit. They instructed the people and turned them to the God of their fathers, the Almighty. The prophets also announced the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, declaring that, from the offspring & lineage of David, the flesh of the Messiah would blossom forth; so that according to the flesh, He would be the son of David, who was the son of Abraham by a long succession; but according to the spirit, He would be the Son of God, pre-existing [cf. para. 51] with the Father, begotten before all the creation of the world, and at the end of the times appearing to all the world as man, the Word of God gathering up in Himself all things that are in heaven and that are on earth [Eph 1:10].

31. So then, Jesus united man with God [i.e. united humanity/manhood with divinity/Godhood], and established a community of union between God [deity] and man [humanity]; since we could not in any other way participate in incorruption [i.e. immortality], except by Jesus coming among us. For so long as incorruption [immortality] was invisible and unrevealed, it helped us not at all, therefore it became visible [2 Tim 1:10], that in all respects we might participate in the reception of incorruption [immortality]. And because, in the original formation[22] of Adam, all of us were tied and bound up with death through his disobedience, it was right that through the obedience of Jesus, who was made man for us, we should be released from death: and because death reigned over the flesh, it was right that through the flesh it should lose its force and let man go free from its oppression. So, the Word was made flesh [John 1:14], that, through that very flesh which sin had ruled and dominated, it should lose its force and be no longer in us. And therefore, our Lord took that same original formation as (His) entry into flesh, so that He might draw near and contend on behalf of the fathers, and conquer by Adam that which, by Adam, had stricken us down.

32. From where, then, is the substance of the first formed (man)? From the Will and the Wisdom of God, and from the virgin earth. For God had not sent rain, the Scripture [Gen 2:5] says, upon the earth, before man was made; and there was no man to till the earth. From this, then, while it was still virgin, God took dust of the earth and formed the man, the beginning of mankind. So then, the Lord [Jesus], summing up afresh this man, took the same dispensation of entry into flesh, being born from the Virgin by the Will and the Wisdom of God; that Jesus also would show forth the likeness of Adam’s entry into flesh and there would be that which was written in the beginning, [Gen 1:26] man after the image and likeness of God.

33. And just as through a disobedient virgin [Eve], it happened that man was stricken down and fell into death, so through the Virgin [Mary], who was obedient to the Word of God, man was reanimated and received life.[23] For the Lord came to seek again the sheep that was lost;[24] and it was man that was lost: and for this cause there was not made some other formation,[25] but in that same which had its descent from Adam, He [i.e. the Lord] preserved the likeness of the (first) formation. For it was necessary that Adam [1 Cor 15:53] should be summed up in Christ, that mortality might be swallowed up and overwhelmed by immortality; and Eve summed up in Mary, that a virgin should be a virgin’s intercessor,[26] and by a virgin’s obedience undo and put away the disobedience of a virgin.

34. And the trespass which came by the tree [i.e. of the knowledge of good & evil] was undone by the tree of obedience [i.e. the cross], when, through His obedience to God, the Son of man was nailed to the tree; thereby putting away the knowledge of evil and bringing in and establishing the knowledge of good: now, it is evil to disobey God, just as it is good to obey God. And for this cause, the Word spoke by Isaiah the prophet, announcing beforehand that which was to come—and for this reason they are called prophets, because they proclaim what is to come. By Isaiah then, spoke the Word thus [Is 50:5-6 LXX]: I refuse not, nor gainsay: I gave my back to scourging, and my cheeks to smiting; and my face I turned not away from the shame of spitting. So then, through Jesus’ obedience by which He obeyed even unto death [Phil 2:8; Is 53:12], hanging on the tree, He put away the old disobedience which was done through the tree [i.e. of the knowledge of good & evil]. Now, seeing that He is the Word of God Almighty [i.e. the Word of God the Father], the Word who—in unseen ways, in our midst—is universally extended in all the world, and encompasses its length and breadth and height and depth (for by the Word of God the whole universe is ordered and disposed), in this same world is crucified the Son of God, inscribed crosswise upon it all:[27] for it is right that He, being made visible, should set upon all things visible the sharing of His cross, that He might show His operation on visible things through a visible form. For it is He who illuminates the height, that is the heavens; and encompasses the deep which is beneath the earth; and stretches and spreads out the length from east to west; and steers across the breadth of north and south; summoning all that are scattered in every quarter to the knowledge of the Father.

35. Moreover, Jesus fulfilled the promise made to Abraham, which God had promised him, to make his seed as the stars of heaven [Gen 15:5]. For Christ did this, who was born of the Virgin who was of Abraham’s seed. Jesus placed all those who have faith in Him as lights in the world [Phil 2:15], and so, the same kind of faith which Abraham had justified the Gentiles also. For Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness [Gal 15:6; cf. Rom. 4:3]. In like manner, we also are justified by faith in God: for the just shall live by faith [Gal 3:11; Hab 2:4]. Now not by the Law is the promise to Abraham, but by faith [Rom 4:13; Gal 2:16]: for Abraham was justified by faith: and for a righteous man the Law is not made [1 Tim 1:9]. In like manner, we also are justified not by the Law, but by faith, which is witnessed to in the Law and in the Prophets, whom the Word of God presents to us.

36. And He [Jesus, the Word] also fulfilled the promise to David; for God had promised David that from the fruit of his body [Ps 132:11; Acts 2:30] He would raise up an eternal King, whose kingdom should have no end [Luke 1:33, etc.]. And this King is Christ, the Son of God, who became the Son of man [Dan 7:13]; that is, who became the fruit of that Virgin who had her descent from David. And for this cause, the promise was, Of the fruit of thy body [Ps 132:11; cf. Lk 1:42?]—that God might declare the peculiar uniqueness of Him [Jesus], who was the fruit of the virgin body that was of David, even of Him [Jesus] who was King over the house of David, (and) of whose kingdom there shall be no end [Luke 1:33; Dan 7:14; etc.].

37. In this way, then, Jesus gloriously achieved our redemption, and fulfilled the promise of the fathers, and abolished the old disobedience. The Son of God became Son of David and Son of Abraham; perfecting and summing up this in Himself, that He might make us to possess life. The Word of God was made flesh by the dispensation of the Virgin, to abolish death and make man live. For we were imprisoned by sin, being born in sinfulness [“into a sinful world”? Ps 51:5 may be speaking of David’s mother’s adulterous affair by which he was conceived!] and living under death.

38. But God the Father was very merciful: He sent His creative[28] Word, who, in coming to deliver us, came to the very place and spot in which we had lost life, and broke the bonds of our fetters. His light appeared and made the darkness of the prison disappear, and hallowed our birth and destroyed death, loosing those same fetters in which we were enchained. He showed forth and demonstrated the resurrection, Himself becoming the first begotten of the dead [Rev 1:5], and in Himself raising up man, who was fallen, lifting up human nature far above the heaven to the right hand of the glory of the Father: even as God promised by the prophet, saying [Amos 9:11]: And I will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen; that is, the flesh [i.e. the body] that was from David. And this our Lord Jesus Christ truly fulfilled, when He gloriously achieved our redemption, that He might truly raise us up, setting us free unto the Father. And if anyone will not receive [i.e. accept or believe] the teaching that Jesus’ birth was from a virgin [Is 7:14], then how shall they receive His resurrection from the dead? For it is nothing wonderful, astonishing, or extraordinary if one who was not born rose from the dead. Nay, indeed, we cannot even really speak of a ‘resurrection’ of someone who came into being without having been born, because a person who is unborn and immortal, and has not undergone birth, will likewise not undergo death.[29] For anyone who has not taken the beginning of man, how could they possibly receive man’s end?

39. Now, if Jesus was not born, then neither did He die; and, if He did not die, neither did He rise from the dead; and, if He did not rise from the dead, neither did He vanquish death and bring its reign to nothing; and if death be not vanquished, how can we ascend to life, who from the beginning have fallen under death? So then those who take away redemption from man, and do not believe God that He will raise them from the dead [i.e. bodily], these also despise the birth of our Lord, which He underwent on our behalf, that the Word of God should be made flesh in order that He might show forth and demonstrate the resurrection of the flesh, and might have pre-eminence over all things in the heavens, as the first-born and eldest offspring of the thought [Ps 45:1 LXX] of the Father, the Word, fulfilling all things, and Himself guiding and ruling upon earth. For He was the Virgin’s first-born, a just and holy man, god-fearing, good, well-pleasing to God, perfect in all ways, and delivering from hell all who follow after Him: for He Himself was the first-begotten of the dead [Rev 1:5], the Prince and Author of life unto God.

40. Consequently, then, the Word of God in all things hath the pre-eminence [Col 1:18]; for that He is true man and Wonderful Counselor and Mighty God [Is 9:6];[30] calling men anew to fellowship with God, that by fellowship with Him we may partake of incorruption [immortality]. So then, He who was proclaimed by the Law through Moses, and by the prophets of the Most High and Almighty God, as Son of the Father of all; He, from whom all things are, He [the Son] who spoke with Moses—He came into Judea, being generated from God by the Holy Spirit,[31] and born of the Virgin Mary (even of her who was of the seed of David and of Abraham), Jesus the Anointed of God, showing Himself to be the One who was proclaimed beforehand by the prophets.

41. And His forerunner was John the Baptist, who prepared and made ready the people beforehand for the reception of the Word of life; declaring that He was the Christ, on whom the Spirit of God rested [John 1:33], mingling with His flesh. Jesus’ disciples, the witnesses of all His good deeds, and of His teachings and His sufferings and death and resurrection, and of His ascension into heaven after His bodily [or fleshly] resurrection—these were the apostles, who after (receiving) the power of the Holy Spirit [Lk 24:49; Acts 1:8; Acts 2:2-4] were sent forth by Him into all the world, and labored in the calling of the Gentiles, showing to mankind the way of life, to turn them from idols and fornication and covetousness, cleansing their souls and bodies by the baptism of water and of the Holy Spirit [John 3:5; Titus 3:5; Heb 10:22; Eph 5:26; 1 Pet 3:21; Acts 22:16]; which Holy Spirit they had received of the Lord, and they distributed and imparted It to them that believed;[32] and thus, they ordered and established the Churches. By faith and love and hope they established that which was foretold by the prophets, namely, the calling of the Gentiles, according to the mercy of God which was extended to them; bringing it to light through the ministration of their service, and admitting them to the promise of the fathers: that is to say, that to those who thus believed in and loved the Lord, and continued [Col 1:23; Rev 2:10; Matt 10:22; 24:13; Acts 14:22] in holiness and righteousness and patient endurance, the God of all [i.e. the Father] had promised to grant eternal life by the resurrection of the dead; through Him who died and rose again, Jesus Christ, to whom He [the Father] has delivered over the kingdom of all existing things, and, the rule of the quick and the dead, and also the judgment. And they [the apostles] counseled them [i.e. the Gentile converts] by the word of truth to keep their flesh undefiled [Jude 1:8; 2 Cor 7:1] until the resurrection and their soul unstained [James 1:27; Rev 3:4].

42. For such is the state of those who have believed, since in them continually abides the Holy Spirit, who was given by Him [i.e. God] in baptism [Acts 2:38; Titus 3:5; John 3:5], and is retained by the receiver, if he walks in truth and holiness and righteousness and patient endurance.[33] For this soul has a resurrection in them that believe, the body receiving the soul again, and along with it, by the power of the Holy Spirit, being raised up [1 Cor 15] and entering into the [final] kingdom of God. This is the fruit of the blessing of Japheth [a son of Noah; Gen 9:27], in the calling of the Gentiles, made manifest through the Church, standing in readiness [Matt 24:44; 25:10; Lk 12:40] to receive its dwelling in [Gen 9:27] the house of Shem according to the promise of God. That all these things would so come to pass, the Spirit of God declared beforehand by the prophets; that in respect of them, the faith of those who worship God in truth should be confirmed. For what was an impossibility to our nature, and therefore, ready to cause inconceivability to mankind, this God caused to be made known beforehand by the prophets; in order that, through its having been foretold in times long before, and then at last finding effect in this way, even as it was foretold, we might know that it was God who (thus) proclaimed to us beforehand our redemption.

43. So then, we must believe God in all things, for, in all things, God is true. Now, that there was a Son of God, and that He existed, not only before He appeared in the world, but also, before the world was made, Moses, who was the first that prophesied [see note[34]] says in Hebrew [Gen 1:1]: Baresith bara Elowin basan benuam samenthares. And this, translated into our language [i.e. the Armenian], is: “The Son in the beginning: God established then the heaven and the earth.”[35] Jeremiah the prophet also testified about this, saying thus [Ps 110:3 LXX; 72:5, 17]:[36] Before the morning-star I begat thee: and before the sun (is) thy name; and that is, before the creation of the world; for together with the world the stars were made. And again, the same says: Blessed is he who was, before he became man [see note[37]]. Because, for God [i.e. the Father], the Son was (as) the beginning before the creation of the world [Prov 8:22]; but for us (He was) then, when He appeared; and before that, He was not, for us, who knew Him not.[38] For this reason also, His disciple John [the Apostle], in teaching us who is the Son of God, who was with the Father before the world was made, and that all the things that were made were made by Him [i.e. the Son], says [in John 1:1-3]: In beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made: showing with certainty that the Word, who was in the beginning with the Father, and by whom all things were made, this is His Son.

44. And again, Moses tells how the Son of God drew near to associate with Abraham [Gen 18:1-3]: And God appeared unto him by the oak of Mamre in the middle of the day. And looking up with his eyes he [Abraham] beheld, and, lo, three men stood over against him. And he bowed himself down to the earth, and said: Lord, if indeed I have found favor [grace; LXX] in thy sight. And in all the narrative which follows, Abraham spoke with the Lord, and the Lord spoke with him. Now, two of the three were angels; but one was the Son of God, with whom also Abraham spoke, pleading on behalf of the men of Sodom, that they should not perish if at least ten [Gen 18:32] righteous men could be found there. And, while Abraham & the Lord were speaking, the two angels entered into Sodom, and Lot received them. And then the Scripture says [Gen 19:24]: And the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven: that is to say, the Son, who spoke with Abraham, being Lord, received power to punish the men of Sodom from the Lord out of heaven, even from the Father who rules over all. So Abraham was a prophet [Gen 20:7] and saw [literally] things to come, which were to take place in human form, even the Son of God, that He should speak with men and eat with them, and then should bring in the judgment from the Father, having received from Him [the Father], who rules over all, the power to punish the men of Sodom.

45. And Jacob, when he went into Mesopotamia, saw Him [i.e. the Son of God] in a dream [Gen 28:12-13], standing upon [LXX] the ladder, that is, the tree[39] which was set up from earth to heaven, by means of which those who believe on Him go up to the heavens. For His sufferings are our ascension on high. And all such visions point to the Son of God, speaking with men and being in their midst. For it was not the Father of all, who is not seen by the world [Jn 1:18, 5:37, 6:46, etc.], the Maker of all, who has said [Is 66:1; Acts 7:49]: Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool: what house will ye build me, or what is the place of my rest? and who [Is 40:12] comprehendeth [i.e. measured] the earth with his hand, and with his span the heaven—it was not He [i.e. the Father] that came and stood in a very small space and spoke with Abraham; but the Word of God, who was ever with mankind, and made known beforehand what would come to pass in the future, and taught men the things of God.

46. He [i.e. the Word] is who spoke with Moses in the bush, and said [Ex 3:7-8]: Seeing have I seen the affliction of my people that is in Egypt; and I am come down to deliver them. He [i.e. the Word ] is who came forth and came down for the deliverance of the oppressed, bringing us out from the power of the Egyptians, that is, from all idolatry and impiety; and delivering us from the Red Sea, that is, delivering us from the deadly confusion of the Gentiles and the grievous annoyance & aggravation of their blasphemy. For in doing all these things, the Word of God prepared and rehearsed beforehand the things concerning us. Then, He set forth in types, typifying, prefiguring or showing beforehand that which was to be; how in very truth He has brought us out from the cruel [Ex 6:9] service of the Gentiles,[40] and a stream of water in the desert [Ex 20:11; 17:1-6] has He made to flow forth in abundance from a rock; and that rock is Himself [1 Cor 10:4]; and He has given us twelve fountains [Ex 15:27], that is, the teaching of the twelve apostles. And the obstinate unbelievers He brought to an end and consumed in the wilderness; but those who believed on Him, and in malice were children [1 Cor 14:20], He made to enter into the inheritance of the fathers; whom not Moses, but Jesus puts in possession of the heritage: who also delivers us from Amalek [Ex 17:8-13] by the expansion of His hands [i.e. on the cross],[41] and brings us to the kingdom of the Father.

47. So then, the Father is Lord, and the Son is Lord, and the Father is God, and the Son is God; for that which is begotten of God is God. And so, in the substance [i.e. nature] and power of His being, there is shown forth one God; but there is also, according to the economy[42] of our redemption, both Son and Father. Because to created things, the Father of all is invisible and unapproachable [1 Tim 6:16], therefore those who are to draw near to God must have their access to the Father through the Son. And yet more plainly and evidently does David speak concerning the Father and the Son as follows [Ps 45:6-7; Heb 1:8f]: Thy throne, O God is forever and ever: thou hast loved righteousness and hated unrighteousness: therefore God hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. For the Son, as being God, receives from the Father, that is, from God, the throne of the everlasting kingdom, and the oil of anointing above His fellows. The oil of anointing is the Spirit, wherewith He has been anointed; and His fellows are prophets and righteous men and apostles, and all who receive the fellowship of His kingdom, that is to say, His disciples.

48. And again David says [Ps 110]: The Lord said unto my Lord: Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool. The rod of thy strength shall the Lord send forth from Sion; and rule thou in the midst of thy enemies. With thee in the beginning in the day of thy power, in the brightness of the holy ones: from the womb before the morning-star I begat thee. The Lord swore and will not repent: Thou art a priest forever after the order of Melchisedec. And the Lord on thy right hand hath broken in pieces kings in the day of wrath: he shall judge among the Gentiles, he shall fill up the ruins, and shall break in pieces the heads of many on the earth. He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he lift up the head. Now by this, David proclaimed that He [the Son] came into being before all,[43] and that He rules over the Gentiles, and that He judges all mankind and the kings who now hate Him and persecute His name. For they are His enemies: and in calling Him God’s priest forever, David declared the immortality of the Son of God. And therefore, David said [Ps 110:7]: He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall he lift up the head; proclaiming the exaltation with glory that followed on His humanity and humiliation and in gloriousness.

49. And again Isaiah the prophet says [Is 45:1]: Thus saith the Lord God to my Anointed the Lord,[44] whose right hand I have held, that the Gentiles should hearken before him. And how the Christ is called Son of God and King of the Gentiles, that is, of all mankind; and that He not only is called but is Son of God and King of all, David declares thus [Ps 2:7-8]: The Lord said unto me: Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me and I will give thee the Gentiles for thy inheritance, and for a possession the utmost parts of the earth. These things were not said of David; for neither over the Gentiles nor over the utmost parts did he rule, but only over the Jews. So then, it is plain that the promise to the Anointed to reign over the utmost parts of the earth is to the Son of God, whom David himself acknowledges as his Lord, saying thus [Ps 110:1]: The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit on my right hand, and so forth, as we have said above. For David means that the Father speaks with the Son; as we showed a little before as to Isaiah, that he said thus [Is 45:1]: God saith to my Anointed the Lord,[45] that the Gentiles should hearken before him. For the promise is the same by the two prophets, that Jesus would be King: so that the speech of God is addressed to one and the same, I mean, to Christ the Son of God. In view of the fact that David says [Ps 2:7]: The Lord said unto me, it is necessary to say that it is not David who speaks, nor are any one of the prophets speaking, in his own person. It is not a man who speaks the prophecies, but the Spirit of God. The Spirit is assimilating and likening Himself to the persons represented, and He speaks in the prophets and utters the words—sometimes as if they were coming from Christ and sometimes as if they were coming from the Father.[46]

50. So then, right fitly, Christ says through David that He, the Son, converses with the Father; and right worthily does the Son say the other things concerning Himself through the prophets; as in other instances, so also after this manner by Isaiah [Is 49:5-6]: And now thus saith the Lord [the Father], who formed me [the Son] as his servant from the womb, to gather Jacob and to gather Israel unto him: and I shall be glorified before the Lord, and my God shall be a strength unto me. And he [the Father] said: A great thing shall it be to thee [the Son] to be called my servant, to stablish and confirm the tribe of Jacob, and to turn again the dispersion of Israel: and I have set thee for a light of the Gentiles [Acts 13:47], that thou shouldst be for salvation unto the end of the earth.

51. Here, first of all, is seen that the Son of God pre-existed, from the fact that the Father spoke with Him, and before the Son of God was born [i.e. of Mary], the Father revealed Him to men: and, next, that He needed to be born a man among men; and that the same God forms Him from the womb, meaning that of the Spirit of God He should be born; and that He is Lord of all men, and Savior of those who believe on Him—both Jews and others. For the people of the Jews is called Israel in the Hebrew language, from Jacob their father, who was the first to be called Israel: and ‘Gentiles’ He calls the whole of mankind. And that the Son of God calls Himself servant, (this is) on account of His subjection to the Father [John 14:28; 1 Cor 11:3; 1 Cor 15:28; 2 Cor 1:3, etc.]: for among men also, every son is servant of his father.

52. That Christ, then, being Son of God before all the world, is with the Father; and being with the Father, is also near and close and joined to mankind; and is King of all, because the Father has subjected all things to Him [Christ—1 Cor 15:27-28]; and that He is Savior of those who believe on Him—such things do the Scriptures declare. For it is not feasible and possible to enumerate every scripture in order; and from these you may understand the others also which have been spoken in like manner, believing in Christ, and seeking understanding and comprehension from God, so as to understand what has been spoken by the prophets.

53. And that this Christ, who was with the Father, being the Word of the Father, was, after that, to take on flesh and become man and undergo the process of birth and be born of a virgin and dwell among men, the Father of all bringing about His incarnation—Isaiah says, in this way [Is 7:14-16a]: Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign: behold, the virgin shall conceive and shall bring forth a son, and ye shall call him Emmanuel: butter and honey shall he eat; before he knoweth or selecteth the evil, he chooseth the good: for, before the child knoweth good or evil, he rejecteth wickedness to choose the good. So, Isaiah proclaimed Jesus’ birth from a virgin. And that Jesus was truly human, Isaiah declared beforehand by speaking of Jesus’ eating, and by calling Him the child, and by giving Him a name—because this is also the custom of those who are born. And His name is two-fold: in the Hebrew language, ‘Messiah Jesus;’ and in our language, ‘Christ savior.’ And the two names are names of works that were truly done. For He was named Christ, because through Him, the Father anointed and adorned all things; and because on His coming as man, He was anointed with the Spirit of God and His Father. As also by Isaiah, He—that is, Christ, the Son—says of Himself [Is 61:1]: The Spirit of the Lord is upon me: wherefore he hath anointed me to preach good tidings to the poor. And (He was named) ‘Savior’ for this reason, that He became the cause of salvation to those who, at that time, were delivered by Him from all sicknesses and from death, and to those who, afterwards, believed on Him, the author of salvation [Heb 5:9], in the future and forevermore.

54. For this cause then is He ‘Savior.’ Now ‘Emmanuel’ is, being interpreted, With you God [Matt 1:23]; or as a yearning cry uttered by the prophet, such as this: With us shall be God [Matt 1:23]; according to which it is the explanation and revelation of the good tidings proclaimed. For Behold, says Christ [about Himself in Is 7:14], the virgin shall conceive and shall bring forth a son; and He, being God, is to be with us. And, as if altogether astonished at these things, Isaiah proclaims in regard to these future events that With us shall be God [Matt 1:23]. And yet again, concerning Jesus’ birth, Isaiah says in another place [Is 66:7]: Before she that travailed gave birth, and before the pains of travail came on, she escaped and was delivered of a man-child. In this way, Isaiah showed that Jesus’ birth from the virgin was unforeseen and unexpected.[47] And again, Isaiah says [Is 9:6]: Unto us a son is born, and unto us a child is given:[48] and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God.[49]

55. Isaiah calls Him Wonderful Counselor, meaning, of the Father: by which it is declared that the Father works all things together with Him; as is contained in the first book of Moses which is entitled Genesis [Gen 1:26]: And God said, Let us make man after our image and likeness. For there is seen in this place the Father speaking to the Son, the Wonderful Counselor of the Father. Moreover, He is also our Counselor, giving advice; not compelling as God, even though He is Mighty God, (as) Isaiah says; but giving advice that we should forsake ignorance and acquire knowledge, and depart from error and come to the truth, and put away corruption [i.e. mortality, degradation, death & things leading to spiritual death] and receive incorruption [i.e. immortality, life and things leading to eternal spiritual life].

56. And again Isaiah says [Is 9:5-7 LXX]: And they shall wish that they had been burned with fire: for unto us a child is born, and unto us a son is given; whose government is upon his shoulders, and his name is called Angel of great counsel. For I will bring peace upon the rulers, again peace and health unto him. Great is his rule, and of his peace there is no bound, upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom, to prosper and complete, to aid and undertake, in righteousness and judgment from this time forth and forevermore. For by this, the Son of God is proclaimed both as being born and also as eternal King. But, they shall wish that they had been burned with fire [Is 9:5] (is said) of those who believe not on Him, and who have done to Him all that they have done: for they shall say in the judgment, ‘How much better that we had been burned with fire before the Son of God was born, than that, when He was born, we should not have believed on Him.’ Because, for those who died before Christ appeared, there is hope that in the judgment of the risen [Risen One?] they may obtain salvation, even such as feared God and died in righteousness and had in them the Spirit of God, as the patriarchs and prophets and righteous men. But, for those who after Christ’s appearing believed not on Him, there is a vengeance without pardon in the judgment. Now in this: Whose government is upon his shoulder [Is 9:6], the cross is—in a figure—declared, on which He was nailed back.[50] For that which was and is a reproach to Him, and for His sake to us [Ps 22:7],[51] meaning the cross, Isaiah says this is His government, being a sign of His kingdom. And by Angel of great counsel [Is 9:6], Isaiah says this means counselor of the Father whom Christ hath declared unto us [John 1:18].

57. That the Son of God would be born, and in what way He was to be born, and that He would be shown to be Christ—from what has been said, it is plain how this was made known beforehand by the prophets. And in addition to this, in what land and among whom of mankind He was to be born and to appear, this also was proclaimed beforehand with words such as these. Moses, in Genesis, says as follows [Gen 49:10-11]: There shall not fail a prince from Judah, nor a leader from his loins, until he shall come for whom it remaineth; and he shall be the expectation of the Gentiles: washing his robe in wine, and his garment in the blood of the grape. Now, Judah was the ancestor of the Jews, the son of Jacob; from whom also they obtained the name [“Jews”]. And there had not failed to be a prince among them and a leader, until the coming of Christ. But from the time of His coming, the might of the quiver was captured, and the land of the Jews was given over into subjection to the Romans, and they no longer had a prince or king of their own. For He was come, for whom remaineth [Gen 49:10] in heaven the kingdom; who also washed his robe in wine, and his garment in the blood of the grape [Gen 49:11]. His robe, as also His garment, are those who believe on Him, whom also He cleansed, redeeming us by His blood. And His blood is said to be blood of the grape: for even as man does not make the blood of the grape, but rather God does, and maketh glad [Ps 104:15] them that drink of it, so also Jesus’ flesh and blood was not made by man, but by God. The Lord Himself gave the sign [Is 7:14] of the virgin, even that Emmanuel, which was from the virgin; who also maketh glad [Ps 104:15] them that drink of Him, that is to say, who receive His Spirit, (even) everlasting gladness [Is 35:10; 51:11]. For this reason also, He is the expectation of the Gentiles [Is 11:10 LXX], of those who hope in Him; because we expect of Him that He will establish again the kingdom.

58. And again Moses says [by recording Balaam’s prophecy in Num 24:17]: There shall rise a star out of Jacob; and a leader shall be raised up out of Israel; showing yet more plainly that the dispensation[52] of His coming in flesh should be among the Jews. And from Jacob and from the tribe of Judah, He who was born, coming down from heaven, took upon Him this economy of dispensation:[53] for the star appeared in heaven. And by leader, he [i.e. Moses/Balaam] means king, because Jesus, the Son of God, is the King of all the redeemed. And at His birth [Matt 2:1-9] the star appeared to the Magi who dwelt in the east; and by this means, they learned that Christ was born; and they came to Judea, led by the star; until the star came to Bethlehem where Christ was born, and they entered the house where the child was laid, wrapped in swaddling clothes; and the star stood over His head, declaring to the Magi the Son of God, the Christ.

59. Furthermore, Isaiah himself says [Isaiah 11:1-10 LXX]: And there shall come forth a rod out of the roots of Jesse, and a flower from his root shall come forth. And the spirit of God shall rest upon him; the spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel and of might, the spirit of knowledge and of godliness: the spirit of the fear of God shall fill him. Not according to opinion shall he judge, and not according to speech shall he reprove: but he shall judge judgment for the humble, and show mercy to the humble of the earth. And he shall smite the earth with the word of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips [lit. “with spirit through the lips”—LXX] shall he slay the impious man. And he shall be girt about his loins [i.e. waist] with righteousness, and with truth encompassed about his reins [i.e. hips]. And the wolf shall feed with the lamb, and the leopard with the kid [i.e. young goat], and the calf and the lion shall pasture together. And a sucking child shall put his hand on the hole of the asps, and on the lair of the offspring of the asps, and they shall not hurt him. And in that day, there shall be a root of Jesse, and he that riseth up to rule the Gentiles: in him shall the Gentiles hope: and his rising up shall be honor. By these words, Isaiah states that Jesus was born from her who was of the lineage of David and of Abraham. For Jesse was the descendant of Abraham, and the father of David; and the virgin who conceived Christ was David’s descendant. Now (as to) the rod: for this cause also Moses, with a rod, showed the mighty works to Pharaoh: and with other men also, the rod is a sign of rule.[54] And by flower he means His flesh [or “body”]; for from spirit it budded forth, as we have said before.

60. Now, [Is 11:3-4] Not according to opinion shall he judge, and not according to speech shall he reprove: but he shall judge judgment for the humble, and shall show mercy to the humble on the earth—(by this), Isaiah the more establishes and declares the godhead [i.e. godhood; deity; divinity] of Christ. For to judge without respect of persons and partiality, and not as favoring the prestigious, but providing the same worthy and equal treatment to the humble, accords with the height and summit of the righteousness of God: for God is not influenced and moved by anyone except the righteous. And to show mercy is the peculiar attribute of God, who—by mercy—is able to save. And [Is 11:4] He shall smite the earth with a word, and slay the impious with a word only: this belongs to God who worketh all things with a word. And in saying [Is 11:5]: He shall be girt about his loins [i.e. waist] with righteousness, and with truth encompassed about his reins [i.e. hips], Isaiah declares Jesus’ human form and characteristic, and Jesus’ surpassing righteousness.

61. Now as to the union and concord and peace of the animals of different kinds, which by nature are opposed and hostile to each other, the Elders [e.g. such as Papias] say that so it will be in truth at the coming of Christ, when He is to reign over all [i.e. during His millennial reign on earth].[55] For already, in a symbol, Isaiah announces the gathering together in peace and concord, through the name of Christ, of men of different races and (yet) who are similar in character and mentality. For when the righteous (who are likened to calves and lambs and kids and sucking children) are united like this, those evil people can inflict no hurt on them whatsoever—the evil people who in the former time were, through their greed  and covetousness, like wild beasts in manners and disposition, both men and women; so much so that some of them were like wolves and lions, ravaging the weaker and warring on their equals; while the women (were like) leopards or asps, who slew, it may be, even their loved ones with deadly poisons, or by reason of lustful desire. (But now) coming together in one name [i.e. Christ/Christian], they have acquired righteous habits by the grace of God, changing their wild and untamed nature. And this has come to pass already. For those who used to be exceedingly wicked, so that they left no work of ungodliness undone, upon learning of Christ and believing on Him, have at once believed and been changed, so as to leave no excellency of righteousness undone; so great is the transformation which faith in Christ the Son of God effects for those who believe on Him. And Isaiah says [Is 11:10 LXX]: Rising up to rule the Gentiles, because He is to die and rise again, and be confessed and believed as the Son of God (and) King. On this account, Isaiah says [Is 11:10 LXX]: And His rising up shall be honor: that is, glory [cf. Is 11:10 LXX]; for at that time He was glorified as God, when He rose.

62. For this reason, again, the prophet says [Amos 9:11]: In that day I will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen: the prophet Amos plainly declares here that the body [or “flesh”] of Christ, which is born of David, was to first die, and then rise from the dead. For the body is called a tabernacle [Wisd 9:15; 2 Cor 5:1; 2 Pet 1:13f]. For by these words, Amos says that He who according to the flesh is of the lineage of David will be Christ the Son of God; and that He will die and rise again, and that He is in appearance a man, but in power God; and that He Himself will be as judge of all the world and as the only worker of righteousness and redeemer—all this the Scripture declared.

63. And again, the prophet Micah speaks of the place where Christ would be born, that it would be in Bethlehem of Judea, saying in this way [Matt 2:6; cf. Micah 5:2, not LXX]: And thou, Bethlehem of Judea, art thou the least among the princes of Judah? for out of thee shall come a prince who shall feed my people Israel. But Bethlehem is the native place of David: so that not only in respect of the Virgin who gave birth to Jesus is He of David’s lineage, but also in respect of His being born in Bethlehem, the native place of David.

64. And again, David says that of his descendants Christ is to be born, (speaking) after this manner [Ps 132:10-12]: For David thy [LXX] servant’s sake, turn not away the face of thy Christ. The Lord sware truth unto David, and he will not disappoint him: Of the fruit of thy body will I set on thy throne: if thy children shall keep my covenant and my testimonies, which I covenanted with them, their sons forevermore (shall sit upon thy throne). But none of the sons of David reigned forevermore, nor was their kingdom forevermore; for it was brought to nothing. But the king that was born of David, He is Christ. All these testimonies declare in plain terms His descent and lineage according to the flesh, and the place where He was to be born; so that no man should seek among the Gentiles or elsewhere for the birth of the Son of God, but in Bethlehem of Judea from Abraham and from David’s descendants.

65. And the manner of His entry into Jerusalem, which was the capital of Judea, where also was His royal seat and the temple of God, the prophet Isaiah declares[56] [Matt 21:5; Is 62:11; Zech 9:9]: Say ye to the daughter of Sion, Behold a king cometh unto thee meek and sitting upon an ass, a colt the foal of an ass. For, sitting on an ass’s colt, so He entered into Jerusalem, the multitudes spreading and putting down for Him their garments. And by the daughter of Sion he means Jerusalem.

66. So then, that the Son of God should be born, and in what manner born, and where He was to be born, and that Christ is the one eternal King, the prophets thus declared. And again, they told beforehand concerning Him how, born from mankind, He should heal those whom He healed, and raise the dead whom He raised, and be hated and despised and undergo sufferings and be put to death and crucified, even as He was hated and despised and put to death.

67. At this point let us speak of His healings. Isaiah says thus [Is 53:4; Matt 8:17]: He took our infirmities and bare our sicknesses: that is to say, ‘He shall take, and shall bear.’ For there are passages in which the Spirit of God, through the prophets, recounts things that are to be as having taken place. For that which God has purposed to do and conceived of as determined to take place, is reckoned as having already taken place: and the Spirit, regarding and seeing the time in which the matters of the prophecy are fulfilled, utters the words (accordingly). And concerning the kind of healing, He mentions it in this way, saying [Is 29:18]: In that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and in darkness and in me the eyes of the blind shall see. And the Spirit says again, through Isaiah [Is 35:3-6]: Be strong, ye weak hands and feeble and trembling knees: be comforted, ye that are of a fearful mind. Be strong, fear not. Behold, our God will recompense judgment: He will come and save us. Then shall the eyes of the blind be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall hear: then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the stammerers shall be plain. And concerning the dead, that they shall be raised, Isaiah says thus [Is 26:19 LXX]: The dead shall be raised, and they that are in the tombs shall be raised. And in bringing these things to pass, Jesus shall be believed to be the Son of God.

68. And that He shall be despised and tormented and, in the end, put to death, Isaiah says thus, [Is 52:13-53:5] Behold, my son shall understand, and shall be exalted and glorified greatly. Even as many shall be astonished at thee, so without glory shall thy form be from men. And many nations shall be astonished, and kings shall shut their mouths: for they to whom it was not declared concerning him shall see, and they who have not heard shall consider. Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? We declared before him as a child, as a root in a dry ground: and there is to him no form nor glory: and we saw him, and he had no form nor beauty: and his form was without honor, meaner than that of other seen: a man in chastisement, and acquainted with the bearing of pain; for his face was turned away, he was dishonored and made of no account. He beareth our sins, and for our sakes endureth pain: and we accounted him to be in pain and chastisement and affliction. But he was wounded for our iniquities, and was tormented for our sins. The discipline of our peace (was) upon him; by his stripes we were healed. By these words it is declared that He was tormented; as also David says—[Ps 38:8] And I was tormented. Now, David was never tormented, but Christ (was), when the command was given that He should be crucified. And again, by Isaiah, God’s Word [i.e. the Son of God] says [Is 50:6 LXX]: I gave my back to scourging, and my cheeks to smiting: and my face I turned not away from the shame of spitting. And Jeremiah the prophet says the same, in this manner [Lam 3:30]: He shall give his cheek to the smiter: he shall be filled with reproaches. All these things Christ suffered.

69. Now what follows in Isaiah is this [Is 53:5-6 LXX]: By his stripes we were healed. All we like sheep went astray: a man in his way went astray: and the Lord delivered him up to our sins. It is manifest therefore that by the will of the Father these things occurred to Jesus for the sake of our salvation. Then Isaiah says [Is 53:7]: And he, by reason of his suffering, opened not (his) mouth: as a sheep to the slaughter was he brought, as a lamb dumb before the shearer. Behold how Isaiah declares Jesus’ voluntarily coming to death. And when the prophet says [Is 53:8]: In the humiliation his judgment was taken away, Isaiah signifies the appearance of Jesus’ humiliation: according to the form of the abasement was the taking away of judgment. And the taking away of judgment is for some unto salvation, and to some unto the torments of perdition. For there is a taking away for a person, and also from a person. So also, with the judgment—those for whom it is taken away have it unto the torments of their perdition: but those from whom it is taken away are saved by it. Now, those who crucified Jesus took away to themselves the judgment, and when they had done this to Him, they did not believe on Him: for through that judgment which was taken away by them they shall be destroyed with torments. And from them that believe on Him the judgment is taken away, and they are no longer under it. And the judgment is that which will be the destruction of the unbelievers at the end of the world by fire.

70. Then Isaiah says [Is 53:8]: His generation who shall declare? This was said to warn us, lest on account of Jesus’ enemies and the outrage of His sufferings we should despise Him as a man of contemptible and low character. For He who endured all this has an undeclarable generation;[57] for by ‘generation,’ He means descent. For God, who is His Father, is undeclarable and unspeakable. Know therefore that the One who endured these sufferings was of such a descent. So, do not despise Him because of the sufferings which He purposely endured for your sake, but rather fear Him because of His descent.

71. And in another place [Lam 4:20], Jeremiah speaks of: The Spirit of our face, the Lord Christ; and how He was taken in their snares, of whom we said, Under his shadow we shall live among the Gentiles. By this Jeremiah means that, being (the) Spirit of God [Luke 1:35], Christ was to become a suffering man, as the Scripture declares. Jeremiah is amazed and astonished at the Messiah’s sufferings, that in such manner He was to endure sufferings, under whose shadow we said that we should live. And by shadow, Jeremiah means His body [or “flesh”]. For just as a shadow is made by a body, so also Christ’s body was made by His Spirit [Luke 1:35].[58] But, further, Jeremiah indicates the humiliation and contemptibility of Jesus’ body by the shadow. For, as the shadow of bodies standing upright is upon the ground and is trodden upon, so also the body of Christ fell upon the ground by His sufferings and was indeed trodden upon. And Jeremiah named Christ’s body a ‘shadow’, because the Spirit overshadowed it with glory and covered it. Moreover, oftentimes when the Lord passed by, they laid those who had various diseases near to path on which He was walking, on whomsoever His shadow fell, they were healed [Note: this is said of Peter in Acts 5:15].

72. The prophet Isaiah speaks of the sufferings of Christ in these words [Is 57:1-2 LXX]: Behold how the righteous [i.e. Jesus] is destroyed, and no man layeth it to heart; and righteous men [i.e. Jesus’ followers] are taken away, and no man understandeth. For from the face of iniquity is the taking away of the righteous: peace shall be his burial, he hath been taken away from the midst. And who else is perfectly righteous, but the Son of God, who both perfects and makes those righteous who believe on Him—who, like Jesus, are persecuted and put to death?[59] But in saying [Is 57:2]: Peace shall be his burial, Isaiah declares how on account of our redemption Jesus died, for it is in the peace of redemption. And Isaiah also declares that by Jesus’ death, those who were previously enemies and opposed to one another, who now come to believe on Jesus with one accord should have peace with one another, becoming friends and beloved on account of their common faith in Him; as indeed they have become. But in saying [Is 57:2]: He hath been taken away from the midst, Isaiah signifies Jesus’ resurrection from the dead. Moreover, because Jesus appeared no more after His death and burial,[60] the prophet [David] declares that, after dying and rising again, Jesus was to remain immortal, (saying) thus [Ps 21:4]: He asked life and thou gavest (it) him, and length of days forever and ever. Now what is this that David says, He asked life, since Jesus was about to die? David, as prophet, proclaims Jesus’ resurrection from the dead, and that being raised from the dead, He is immortal. For He received both life, that He should rise, and length of days forever and ever, that He should be incorruptible and immortal.

73. And again David says thus concerning the death and resurrection of Christ [Ps 3:5]: I laid me down and slept: I awaked, for the Lord received me. David did not say this about himself, for he was not raised after death. But the Spirit of Christ, who also spoke in other prophets concerning the Messiah, says here by David [Ps 3:5]: I laid me down and slept: I awaked, for the Lord received me. By “sleep,” he means death; for Jesus arose again.

74. And again David (says) thus concerning the sufferings of Christ [Ps 2:1-2; Acts 4:25ff]: Why did the Gentiles rage, and the people imagine vain things? Kings rose up on the earth, and princes were gathered together, against the Lord and his Anointed. For Herod, the king of the Jews, and Pontius Pilate, the governor of Claudius Caesar,[61] came together and condemned Him to be crucified. For Herod feared of being expelled from his kingdom by Jesus, as if Jesus were going to be an earthly king. But Pilate was constrained (against his will), by Herod and the Jews that were with him, to deliver Jesus to death: (for they threatened Pilate) if he should not rather do this than act contrary to Caesar, by letting go a man who was called a king.

75. And further, concerning the sufferings of Christ, the same prophet [David] also says [Ps 89:38-45]: Thou hast repelled and despised us; and hast cast away thine Anointed. Thou hast broken the covenant of thy [LXX] servant; thou hast cast his holiness to the ground. Thou hast overthrown all his hedges; thou hast made his strongholds to tremble. They that pass on the way have ravaged him; he is become a reproach to his neighbors. Thou hast exalted the right hand of his oppressors; thou hast made his enemies to rejoice over him. Thou hast turned away the help of his sword, and gavest him not a hand in the battle. Thou hast removed and thrown him down from purification; thou hast overturned his throne upon the ground. Thou hast shortened the days of his time, and hast poured forth shame upon him. That Jesus should endure these things by the will of the Father, David clearly declared. For it was by the will of the Father that Jesus was to endure sufferings.

76. And Zechariah says thus [as if God the Father was doing the speaking, in Zech 13:7]: Sword, awake against my shepherd, and against the man (that is) my companion. Smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered. And this came to pass when Jesus was taken by the Jews: for all the disciples forsook Him, fearing lest they should die with Him. For they did not yet steadfastly believe on Him, until they had seen Him risen from the dead.

77. Again, God the Father says in the Twelve Prophets [Hos 10:6], And they bound him and brought him as a present to the king. For Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and at that time, he had resentful hostility against Herod, the king of the Jews. But when Christ was bound and brought to Pilate, he then sent Jesus to Herod. Pilate commanded that Herod was to be consulted on this matter, so that he might know of a certainty what he should desire concerning Jesus; thus making Christ a convenient occasion of Pilate’s reconciliation with king Herod.

78. And, in Jeremiah [for source of quote, see footnote #62], God the Father declares Jesus’ death and His descent into Hades, saying: And the Lord the Holy One of Israel, remembered his dead, which aforetime fell asleep in the dust of the earth; and he went down unto them, to bring the tidings of his salvation, to deliver them.[62] In this passage, God also gives the reason for His death: for His descent into Hades was for the salvation of them that had passed away [cf. The Apostle’s Creed; also see 1 Peter 3:19; 4:6; Eph 4:9].[63]

79. And, again, concerning His cross, Isaiah says [Is 65:2 LXX]: I have stretched out my hands all the day long to a disobedient and gainsaying people. For this is an indication of the cross. And even more clearly, David says [Ps 22:16]: Hunting-dogs encompassed me: the assembly of evil-doers came about me. They pierced my hands and my feet. And again he says [Ps 22:14]: My heart became even as wax melting in the midst of my body; and they put asunder [Ps 22:17] my bones, and again he says [Ps 22:20; 119:120 LXX; Ps 22:16]: Spare my soul from the sword and nail my flesh:[64] for the assembly of evil-doers hath risen up against me. In these words, with obvious clearness, David signifies that Jesus would be crucified. And Moses says this same thing to the people, in this manner [Deut 28:66]: And thy life shall be hanged up before thine eyes, and thou shalt fear by day and by night, and thou shalt not believe in thy life.[65]

80. And again David says [Ps 22:17-18; cf. John 19:23f]: They looked upon me: they parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture they cast lots. For at His crucifixion, the soldiers divided His garments as was their custom; and the garments they divided by tearing; but for the vesture [tunic], because it was woven from the top and was not sewn, they cast lots, that to whomsoever it should fall, he should take it.

81. And again Jeremiah the prophet [as is stated in Matt 27:9-10; see footnote][66] says: And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was sold, whom they bought from the children of Israel; and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me. For Judas, being one of Christ’s disciples, agreed with the Jews and covenanted with them when he saw that they desired to kill Jesus—because Judas had been reproved by Jesus. And so, Judas took the thirty staters [Matt 26:15] of the province, and betrayed Christ to the Jews. Then, repenting of what he had done, Judas gave the silver back again to the rulers of the Jews, and hanged himself. But they, thinking it not right to cast it into their treasury, because it was the price of blood, used the money to buy the ground that was a certain potter’s for the burial of strangers.

82. And at Jesus’ crucifixion, when He asked for a drink, they gave Him vinegar mingled with gall [cf. John 19:29].[67] And this was declared through David [Ps 69:21; Matt 27:34]. They gave gall to my meat, and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.[68]

83. And that, being raised from the dead, He was to ascend into heaven, David says thus [Ps 68:17-18; Eph 4:8]: The chariot of God (is) ten-thousandfold, thousands are the drivers: the Lord (is) among them in Sinai in (his) sanctuary. He ascended up on high, he led captivity captive: he received, he gave gifts to men. And by captivity he means the destruction of the rule of the apostate angels. He also declares the place on earth from which He was to ascend into heaven. For the Lord, he says, from Sion ascended up on high [see note].[69] For over against Jerusalem, on the mount which is called (the Mount) of Olives, after He was risen from the dead, He assembled His disciples, and expounded to them the things concerning the kingdom of heaven; and they saw that He ascended, and they saw how the heavens were opened and received Him.

84. David again speaks of Jesus’ ascension, saying [Ps 24:7, 9]: Lift up your gates, ye rulers; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting gates, and the King of glory shall come in. For the everlasting gates are the heavens. But because the Word [Jn 1:1] descended invisible to created things, He was not made known in His descent to them. Because the Word was made flesh [Jn 1:14], He was visible in His ascension; and, when the powers saw Him, the angels below cried out to those who were on the firmament [Ps 24:7, 9]: Lift up your gates; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting gates, that the King of glory may come in. And when they marveled and said [Ps 24:8, 10]: Who is this? those who had already seen Him testified a second time: The Lord strong and mighty, he is the King of glory.[70]

85. And being raised from the dead and exalted at the Father’s right hand, He awaits the time appointed by the Father for the judgment, when all enemies shall be put under Him. Now the enemies are all those who were found in apostasy, angels and archangels and powers and thrones, who despised the truth. And the prophet David himself says thus [Ps 110:1]: The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. And that He ascended to the place from where He had come down, David says [Ps 19:6]: From the end of heaven is his going forth, and his cessation even at the end of heaven. Then David indicates Jesus’ coming judgment by saying [Ps 19:6]: And there is none that shall be hid from his heat.

86. If then, the prophets prophesied that the Son of God was to appear upon the earth, and prophesied also where on the earth and how and in what manner He would make known His appearance, and all these prophecies the Lord [Jesus] took upon Himself; our faith in Him was well-founded, and the tradition of the preaching (is) true: that is to say, the testimony of the apostles, who being sent forth by the Lord, preached in all the world the Son of God, who came to suffer and endured to the destruction of death and the quickening of the flesh [i.e. His bodily resurrection]: that by the putting away of the hostility towards God, which is unrighteousness, we should obtain peace with Him, doing that which is pleasing to Him. And this was declared by the prophets in the words [Is 52:7; Rom 10:15]: How beautiful are the feet of them that bring tidings of peace, and of them that. bring tidings of good things. And that these [i.e. the apostles] were to go forth from Judea and from Jerusalem, to declare to us the word of God, which is the law for us, Isaiah says thus [Is 2:3]: For from Sion shall come forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And that in all the earth they were to preach, David says [Ps 19:4]: Into all the earth went forth their speech, and their words to the ends of the world.

87. And that, not by the much speaking of the Law [i.e. the lengthiness of the O.T.; cf. Matt 6:7], but by the brevity of faith and love, men were to be saved, Isaiah says thus [Is 10:23; Rom 9:28]: A word brief and short in righteousness: for a short word will God make in the whole world. And therefore, the apostle Paul says [Rom 13:8, 10]: Love is the fulfilling of the Law: for the person who loves God has fulfilled the Law. Moreover, the Lord, when He was asked which is the first commandment, said [Matt 22:37-40; Mark 12:28-31]: Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy strength. And the second is like unto it: Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. On these two commandments, He says, all the Law hangeth and the prophets. So then, by our faith in Him, He has made our love to God and our neighbor to grow, making us godly and righteous and good. And therefore, a short word has God made on the earth in the world [Is 10:23].

88. And that after His ascension, He was to be exalted above all, and that there shall be none to be compared and equaled unto Him, Isaiah says thus [Is 50:8-9]: Who is he that entereth into judgment (with me)? Let him stand up against (me). And who is he who is justified? Let him draw near to the Lord’s Son. Woe unto you, for ye shall grow old as a garment, and the moth shall devour you. [Is 2:11, 17] And all flesh shall be humbled and abased, and the Lord alone shall be exalted in the highest. And that, in the end, by His name, they should be saved who served God, Isaiah says [Is 62:2; 65:13-16]: And on those who serve me a new name shall be called, which shall be blessed upon the earth: and they shall bless the true God. And that this blessing He Himself should bring about, and Himself should redeem us by His own blood, Isaiah declared, saying [Is 63:9]: No mediator, no angel, but the Lord himself saved them; because he loved them and spared them: he himself redeemed them.[71]

89. That He would not send back the redeemed to the legislation of Moses—for the Law was fulfilled in Christ—but would have them live in newness by the Word, through faith in the Son of God and love, Isaiah declared, saying [Is 43:18-21]: Remember not the former things, nor bring to mind the things that were in the beginning. Behold I make new (things), which shall now spring up, and ye shall know (them). And I will make in the wilderness a way, and in the waterless place streams, to give drink to my chosen race, and to my people whom I have purchased to declare my virtues. Now when Isaiah speaks of a wilderness and a waterless place, he indicates the previous condition of those who were called out from among the Gentiles: for the Word [Jn 1:1] had not passed through them [Rev 1:15],[72] nor given them the Holy Spirit to drink [Is 44:3; Jn 4:14; 7:37-39; 1 Cor 12:13]. But the Word fashioned the new way of godliness and righteousness, and made abundant streams to spring forth, disseminating over the earth the Holy Spirit; even as it had been promised through the prophets, that in the end of the days He should pour out the Spirit upon the face of the earth [Joel 2:28; Acts 2:17].

90. Therefore by newness of the spirit is our calling, and not in the oldness of the letter [Rom 7:6]; even as Jeremiah prophesied [Jer 31:31-34; Heb 8:8f]: Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that I will accomplish for the house of Israel and for the house of Judah the covenant: of the testament which I covenanted with their fathers, in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt: because they continued not in the covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord. For this is the covenant of the testament that I will covenant with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord: I will put my laws [“giving my laws”—cf. Heb 8:10] into their minds, and write them in their hearts; and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people: and they shall not teach anymore every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest of them. For I will pardon and be merciful unto the sins of their iniquities, and their sins will I remember no more.

91. And that those who are called out from among the Gentiles should inherit these promises, to whom also the new testament was opened up, Isaiah proclaims, in this way [Is 17:6-8]: These things saith the God of Israel: In that day a man shall trust in his Maker, and his eyes shall look to the Holy One of Israel: and they shall not trust in altars, nor in the work of their own hands [i.e. idols], which their fingers have made. For very plainly this was said of people who have forsaken idols and believed in God our Maker through the Holy One of Israel. And the Holy One of Israel is Christ: and He became visible to men, and to Him we look eagerly and behold Him; and we trust not in altars, nor in the works of our hands.

92. And that He would become visible amongst us (for the Son of God became Son of man) and be found of us who before had no knowledge of Him, the Word Himself says thus in Isaiah [Is 65:1 LXX]: I became manifest [i.e. visible] to them that sought me not; I was found of them that asked not for me. I said, Behold, here am I, to a race [nation, LXX] that called not on my name.

93. And that this race [i.e. of Christian Gentiles] was to become an holy people was declared in the Twelve Prophets by Hosea, in this manner [Hos 2:3; 1:10; Rom 9:25]: I will call that which was not (my) people, my people; and her that was not beloved, beloved. It shall come to pass that in the place where it was called not my people, there shall they be called sons of the Living God. This also is that which was said by John the Baptist [Matt 3:9]: That God is able of these stones to raise up sons to Abraham. For our hearts (being withdrawn and taken away from the stony worship by means of faith) behold God, and become sons of Abraham, who was justified by faith. And therefore God says by Ezekiel the prophet [Ezek 11:19-20]: And I will give them another heart, and a new spirit will I give them: and I will withdraw and take away the stony heart from their flesh, and I will give them another heart of flesh: so that they shall walk in my precepts, and shall keep my ordinances and do them. And they shall be to me for a people, and I will be to them for a God.

94. So then, by the new calling, a change of hearts in the Gentiles came to pass through the Word of God, when He was made flesh and tabernacled with men; as also His disciple John says [John 1:14]: And his Word was made flesh and dwelt among us. As a result of this, the Church bears much fruit of the redeemed: because no longer Moses (as) mediator, nor Elijah (as) messenger, but the Lord Himself has redeemed us, granting many more children to the Church than to the first Synagogue; as Isaiah declared, saying [Is 54:1; Gal 4:27]: Rejoice thou barren, that didst not bear. The barren is the Church, which never at all in former times presented sons to God. Cry out and call, thou that didst not travail: for the children of the desolate are more than of her which hath an husband. Now the first Synagogue had the [Mosaic] Law as husband.

95. Moreover, Moses, in Deuteronomy [Deut 28:44], says that the Gentiles should be the head, and the unbelieving people the tail. Also in Deuteronomy, God speaks through Moses, saying [Deut 32:21; Rom 10:19]: Ye provoked me to jealousy with those that are no gods, and angered me with your idols: and I will provoke you to jealousy with that which is no nation, and with a foolish nation will I anger you. Because they [the Israelites/Jews] forsook the God who is, and worshipped and served the gods who are not; and they slew the prophets of God, and prophesied for Baal [Jer 2:8], who was the idol of the Canaanites. And the Son of God, who is, they despised and condemned, but they chose Barabbas the robber who had been imprisoned for murder: and the eternal King they disavowed, and they acknowledged as their king the temporal Caesar. So, it pleased God to grant their inheritance to the foolish Gentiles, even to those who were not of the people or the nation of God and knew not what God is. Since, then, by this calling, life has been given to us, and God has summed up again for Himself in us the faith of Abraham, we ought not to turn back anymore—I mean, to the first legislation. For we have received the Lord of the Law, the Son of God; and by faith in Him we learn to love God with all our heart, and our neighbor as ourselves. Now the love of God is far from all sin, and love to the neighbor worketh no ill to the neighbor [Cf. Rom 13:10].

96. For this reason also, we do not need the Law as a tutor. Behold, with the Father we speak, and in His presence we stand, being children in malice [1 Cor 14:20], and grown strong in all righteousness and soberness. For no longer shall the Law say [Ex 20:13ff; Deut 5:17ff], Do not commit adultery to him who has no desire at all for another’s wife; and Thou shalt not kill, to him who has put away from himself all anger and enmity; and Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s field or ox or ass to those who have no care at all for earthly things, but store up the heavenly fruits: nor An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth [Ex 21:24] to him who counts no man his enemy, but all men his neighbors, and therefore cannot stretch out his hand at all for vengeance. It will not require tithes of him who consecrates all his possessions to God, leaving father and mother and all his kindred, and following the Word of God. And there will be no command to remain idle for one day of rest, to him who perpetually keeps sabbath, that is to say, who in the temple of God, which is man’s body, does service to God, and in every hour works righteousness. For I desire mercy, He saith [in Hos 6:6], and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings. But [in Is 66:3] the wicked that sacrificeth to me a calf is as if he should kill a dog; and [the wicked] that offereth fine flour, as though he offered swine’s blood. But [in Joel 2:32] whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved. And there is none other name of the Lord given under heaven whereby men are saved [Acts 4:12], except that of God, which is Jesus Christ the Son of God, to which also the demons are subject and evil spirits and all apostate energies.

97. By the invocation of the name of Jesus Christ, crucified under Pontius Pilate, there is a separation and division among mankind; and wheresoever any of those who believe on Jesus shall invoke and call upon Him and do His will, He is near and present, fulfilling the requests of those who, with pure hearts [Matt 5:8], call upon Him. In accordance with which, receiving salvation, we continually give thanks to God, who by His great, inscrutable and unsearchable wisdom delivered us, and proclaimed the salvation from heaven (namely, the visible coming of our Lord, that is, His living as man) to which we, by ourselves, could not attain: for [Luke 18:27] the things which are impossible with men are possible with God. For this reason also, Jeremiah says concerning her (i.e. wisdom) [Baruch 3:29-4:1]: Who hath gone up into heaven, and taken her, and brought her down from the clouds? Who hath gone over the sea, found her, and will bring her for choice gold? There is none that hath found her way, nor any that comprehendeth her path. But he that knoweth all things knoweth her by his understanding: he that prepareth the earth forevermore, hath filled it with four-footed beasts: he that sendeth forth the light and it goeth; he called it, and it obeyed him with fear; and the stars shined in their watches, and were glad; he called them, and they said ‘Here we be’; they shined with gladness unto him that made them. This is our God: there shall none other be accounted of in comparison with him. He hath found out every way by knowledge, and hath given it unto Jacob, his servant, and to Israel, that is beloved of him. Afterward did he appear upon earth, and was conversant with men. This is the book of the commandments of God, and of the law which endureth forever. All they that hold it fast (are appointed) to life: but such as leave it shall die. Now by Jacob and Israel, Jeremiah [in Baruch] means the Son of God, who received power from the Father over our life, and after having received this, [the Son of God] brought it down to us who were far off from Him, when He appeared on earth and was conversant with men, mingling and mixing the Spirit of God the Father with the creature formed by God,[73] that man might be after the image and likeness of God [Gen 1:26].

98. This, beloved, is the preaching of the truth, and this is the manner of our redemption, and this is the way of life, which the prophets proclaimed, and Christ established, and the apostles delivered, and the Church in all the world bequeaths or passes on to her children. This must we keep with all certainty, with a sound will and pleasing to God, with good works and right-willed disposition.

99. So that none should imagine God the Father to be other than our Creator, as the heretics [Gnostics] imagine; for they despise the God who is, and make gods of that which is not; and they fashion a Father of their own above our Creator, and imagine that they have found out for themselves something greater than the truth. For all these are impious and blasphemers against their Creator and against the Father, as we have shown in the Exposure and Overthrow of Knowledge falsely so-called [i.e. Against Heresies]. And others again reject the coming of the Son of God and the dispensation of His incarnation, which the apostles delivered and the prophets declared beforehand, even such as should be the summing up of mankind, as we have shown you in brief: and such also are reckoned amongst those who are lacking in faith. And others receive not the gifts of the Holy Spirit, and cast away from themselves the prophetic grace, watered whereby man bears the fruit of life unto God: and these are they of whom Isaiah speaks [in Is 1:30]: For they shall be, saith he, as an oak that is stripped of leaves, and as a garden that hath no water. And such are in no way serviceable to God, seeing that they cannot bear any fruit.

100. So then, in respect of the three points [lit. “heads”—see para. 6] of our seal, error has strayed widely from the truth. For either they 1) reject the Father, or they 2) accept not the Son and speak against the dispensation of His incarnation; or else they 3) receive not the Spirit, that is, they reject prophecy. And of all such must we beware, and shun their ways, if in very truth we desire to be well-pleasing to God and to attain the redemption that is from Him.


[1] We do not know the identity of this man named “Marcianus,” other than he is a Christian.

[2] Lit., “I am the Existing One,” as in LXX. But in his earlier work, Against Heresies (Book 3, chap 6, para. 2), Irenaeus quotes these words as if they were spoken by the Father.

[3] This passage is obscure. The words “made God” may represent deification, an idea found in other early writers: e.g. Hippolytus, Philos. chap 10, para. 34. It is frequent in Athanasius; e. g., De Incarn. 54. In Irenaeus, the thought finds expression in various forms: see Against Heresies Book 4, chap 38, para. 3-4; See also Book 3, chap 6, para. 1; Book 4, preface & chap 1.

[4] See Against Heresies Book 3, chap 24, para. 2 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 459); Book 4, chap 7, para. 4 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 470); chap 20, para. 1 (ANF Vol. 1 p. 487), and chap 20, para. 3-4 (ANF Vol. 1 p. 488). On this whole section, see the original Introduction by Armitage Robinson, pp. 44 ff.

[5] See Against Heresies Bk 4, chap 33, para. 15 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 511).

[6] An account of the late Jewish teaching as to the Seven Heavens is given in Mr. H. St John Thackeray’s valuable book St Paul and Contemporary Jewish Thought, pp. 172–179, where three parallel tables of their descriptions will be found. References to them in Christian apocryphal literature are collected in Dr Charles’s Book of the Secrets of Enoch (from the Sclavonic), pp. xliv-xlvii. See also Hippolytus in his Commentary on Daniel 4.23.5-6 (cf. ANF Vol. 5, p. 179); Clement of Alexandria (Strom. Bk 4, chap 25; ANF Vol. 2, p. 438); Origen (c. Cels. Bk 6, chap 21; ANF Vol. 4, p. 583-583) likewise mentions the Seven Heavens, but without committing himself to the exact number.                                                                                            Irenaeus in Bk 1, chap 5, para. 2 (ANF. Vol 1, p. 322), refers to the Valentinian teaching which identified the Seven Heavens with angels of varying degrees of power. In our passage, he strangely connects the Seven Heavens with the Seven Gifts of the Spirit. We observe two peculiarities in his description. First, that, numbering from above downwards, he reckons the highest as the First Heaven: secondly, that his Seventh, or lowest, is the firmament [other writers would have the 7th heaven as being the highest heaven, that of the ‘chiefest rest’]. Evil is wholly excluded from these heavens: so it is in the Ascension of Isaiah (for which see the original Introduction by Armitage Robinson, p. 41), where however it is found in the firmament, which is not reckoned as one of the heavens.                        The belief in the Seven Heavens soon came to be discredited; and it is curious to find a survival of it, due apparently to Irish influences, in the invocation of the septens cælos in a book of prayers of the seventh or eighth century (Brit. Mus. Reg. 2. A. xx, f. 47 v.).

[7] Irenaeus by no means stands alone in his statement that the God and Father of all is glorified by the Son and by the Holy Spirit. Strange as the conception is to us it was not strange to the religious mind of the second Christian century.

[8] Origen in his Commentary on Romans (III, § 8) interprets the two Cherubim over the mercy-seat as the Son and the Holy Spirit. In De Principiis Book 1, chap 3, para. 4 (ANF Vol. 4, p. 253); Book 4, chap 1, para. 26 (ANF Vol. 4, p. 375-376), he gives the same interpretation of the two Seraphim of Is 6:3, saying that he received it from his Hebrew teacher: he adds that the same applies to the two living creatures of Hab 3:2 (LXX). The interpretation that Philo (Vit. Mos. iii. 8) gave on the two Cherubim probably paved the way for Origen’s interpretation.

[9] In Against Heresies Bk 3, chap 21, para. 10 (ANF Vol 1, p. 453;), Irenaeus refers to the Word of God (i.e. the Son) as being the “hand of God.” And in Against Heresies Bk 4, chap 20, para. 1 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 487, 488), Irenaeus speaks of the Word and Wisdom (i.e. the Son and the Spirit) as being God’s “own hands” by whom & in whom He made all things, and to whom God was speaking when He said “Let Us make man after Our image and likeness” (Gen 1:26).

[10] Wisdom 2:23 [Brenton LXX]: “For God created man to be immortal, and made him to be an image of his own eternity.”

[11] See also Against Heresies Book 4, chap 40, para. 3 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 524); Book 5, chap 24, para. 4 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 553).

[12] See also Against Heresies Book 5, chap 21, para. 2 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 549); Cf. Justin Martyr Dial. 103 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 251).

[13] This is from the Book of Enoch (chap 7, para. 1; chap 8, para. 1). Irenaeus also refers to it in Against Heresies Book 4, chap 16, para. 2 (ANF Vol. 1 p. 481). Tertullian makes use of the same passage: On the Apparel of Women, Book 1, chap 2 (ANF Vol. 4, p. 14-15); Book 2, chap 10 (ANF Vol. 4, p. 23).

[14] Origen argued that as Ham was not the youngest son of Noah, the word “son” was used for grandson, and that “Noah knew what his grandson (Canaan) had done to him”: hence the curse falls on Canaan. This accorded with a tradition given him by his Hebrew teacher (Comm. in Gen. 9:18; Lomm. 8, p. 65). The trouble arose from the fact that “the curse of Ham” was not pronounced on Ham, but on his son Canaan. Justin Martyr (Dial. 139) says that Noah cursed his son’s son; “for the prophetic Spirit would not curse his son, who had been blessed together with the other sons by God.”

[15] Irenaeus makes no difficulty about speaking of “the curse of Ham.” It is clear that he had a text of the LXX, which enabled him to do so. The Hebrew of Gen 9:25 gives us: “Cursed be Canaan: a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.” This was no doubt understood and intended to mean “the child of Ham,” i.e. Canaan: it might also however be understood as “Ham the child.” It seems that the translator of Irenaeus rightly interpreted his meaning.

[16] LXX has “Canaan,” but one cursive has “Ham.”

[17] LXX has “Canaan,” though E and other MSS. have “Ham.”

[18] With all of the above, cf. Justin Martyr Dial. 139.

[19] See Against Heresies, Bk 5, chap 16, para. 1 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 544).

[20] Cf. Barn. chap 14; and see also in Clem. Hom: Homily 11, chap 22 (where the Spirit is spoken of as being the hand of God—ANF Vol. 8, p. 289), and Homily 16, chap 12 (ANF Vol. 8, p. 315), where we read: “One is He who said to His Wisdom, ‘Let us make a man.’ But His Wisdom was that with which He Himself always rejoiced [Prov 8:30] as with His own spirit. It is united as soul to God, but it is extended by Him as ‘hand,’ fashioning the universe. On this account, also, one man was made, and from him went forth also the female. And being a unity generically, it is yet a duality, for by expansion and contraction the unity is thought to be a duality. So that I act rightly in offering up all the honor to one God as to parents.”

[21] The O.T. name of “Joshua” is the equivalent of the N.T. name of “Jesus”: both names mean “Savior”—cf. LXX @ Ezra 2:2; 3:2; Neh 8:17; and see also Matt 1:21; Hebrews 4:8. Justin Martyr (Dial. 75, 113) has much to say on this change of name. Cf. Barnabas chap 12, para. 8f.

[22] Against Heresies (ANF Vol. 1, p. 527; Bk 5, chap 1, para. 2): “For He would not have been one truly possessing flesh and blood, by which He redeemed us, unless He had summed up in Himself the ancient formation of Adam.”

[23] The same parallel is worked out in Against Heresies Book 3, chap 22, para. 4 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 455), and Book 5, chap 19, para. 1 (ANF Vol. 1 p. 547). It is found earlier in Justin Martyr (Dial. 100; ANF Vol. 1, p. 249), and later in Tertullian (On the Flesh of Christ, chap 17; ANF Vol. 3, p. 536).

[24] Irenaeus is fond of referring to the sheep that was lost—he does it a handful of times in Against Heresies.

[25] See Against Heresies, ANF Vol. 1, p. 541; Bk 5, chap 14, para. 2.

[26] Irenaeus makes similar arguments involving Mary & Eve in Against Heresies Book 3, chap 22, para. 4; and Book 5, chap 19, para. 1. See also Just. M. Dial. 100.

[27] See also Against Heresies Book 5, chap 18, para. 2. The thought is taken from chapter 60 of Justin Martyr’s First Apology. In speaking of the soul of the universe, Plato (in the Timaeus) is quoted by Justin as saying “He placed him [or impressed him] crosswise [i.e., in the form of the letter X] in [or upon] the universe,” and then Justin says that Plato got the idea from reading the writings of Moses which tell of the incident involving the Bronze Serpent being place on a pole (Num 21:8-9). Justin says that Plato read Moses and borrowed such thoughts from Moses, but that Plato did not accurately understand “that it was the figure of the cross, but taking it to be a placing crosswise, he said that the power next to the first God was placed crosswise in the universe…For he gives the second place to the Logos which is with God, who he said was placed crosswise in the universe.” Justin also mentions Plato having read Moses and therefore giving “the third place to the Spirit who was said [by Moses] to be borne upon the water [Gen 1:2],” with Plato having said in the Timaeus: “And the third around the third.” [ANF Vol. 1, p. 183]

[28] “artifex”— skilled creator; The Son also is the Creator; John 1:3; Cf. Against Heresies Book 5, chap 15, para. 2; chap 24, para. 4; cf. Book 3, chap 21, para. 10; chap 22, para. 1-3; chap 23, para. 1.

[29] And for a resurrection to take place, there necessarily must also have first been a death.

[30] See the notes concerning this variant version of Isaiah 9:6 found at para. 54.

[31] It is not entirely clear if this generation spoken of here refers to the eternal begetting of the Son (i.e. by the Father, in eternity past, before the creation of the world), or if it is only speaking of the incarnation of the Son (Lk 1:35).

[32] Is he speaking of the apostles imparting the miraculous gifts of the Holy Spirit, imparting an additional measure of the Spirit besides the indwelling which is normally received in baptism? In other words, is he speaking of the gifts of the Spirit imparted by the apostolic laying on of hands (such as is seen in Acts 8:14-19)—thus enabling the early Christian congregations to evangelize more effectively, and to exercise miraculous gifts and to be confirmed,  established & strengthened in the faith?

[33] Notice that the Holy Spirit does not remain in believers unconditionally, but rather, on a conditional basis.

[34] Does Irenaeus mean that Moses was the first to prophesy in writing, because of Moses being the primary human author of the Pentateuch? Because, when we read the Pentateuch itself, we see that other men mentioned within its pages prophesied prior to Moses even having been born. And even if Irenaeus means that Moses was the first to be called “a prophet,” even this is not true because Abraham, who lived before Moses, was called a prophet (cf. Gen 20:7).

[35] See also on Gen 1:1, cf. Tertullian ANF Vol. 3, p. 600. The Hebrew text has been corrupted in transmission, but it is obvious that Irenaeus interpreted the first two words (“In the beginning created”) as “In the beginning the Son.”

[36] This quote is not from Jeremiah, but cf. Ps 110:3 LXX (see it also in the Vulgate & Douay-Rheims); and for the second part of the quote given see Ps 72:5, 17.

[37] This quote is also not from Jeremiah or the Psalms, but it is probably from an apocryphal work that may have been attributed to Jeremiah.

[38] Consider Ps 2:7; Luke 3:22 (i.e. the voice of God the Father at Jesus’ baptism: “this day have I begotten thee.”)

[39] Jacob’s Ladder signified the Cross—Justin, Dial. 89

[40] As the elect nation of Israel was delivered from Egyptian slavery.

[41] Concerning the theme of the expansion of hands, see Against Heresies Book 5, chap 17, para. 4 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 545—cf. para. 79 in The Demonstration). See this theme also in The Epistle of Barnabas chap 12 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 144-145); and Just. M. Dial. 91, 112, 131 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 245, 255, 265). Concerning Fighting Amalek, see Against Heresies Book 4, chap 24, para. 1 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 495); chap 33, para. 1 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 506).

[42] Definitions for “Economy”: 1) Household management. 2) God’s creative & redemptive economy refers to His ‘handling’ or ‘management’ of the fallen state of the world and of mankind: i.e., the arrangements God made in order to bring about man’s salvation after the Fall. 3) In the broadest sense, the divine economy not only refers to God’s actions to bring about the world’s salvation and redemption, but to all of God’s dealings with, and interactions with, the world, including the creation. 4) The sphere of God’s condescension to the flesh, or the ordered process of His self-disclosure. 5) “Economies” are “Dispensational Arrangements;” i.e., carefully planned & managed series of episodes. 6) The arrangement of the various elements of a thing; the way in which a series of episodes that make up the whole (like episodes of a long play or parts of a long poem) all work together as identifiable parts of the whole. 7) the divine plan for humanity, from creation through redemption to final beatitude; the method of divine administration, as at a particular time or for a particular race. 8) the disposition or regulation of the parts or functions of any organic whole; and organized system or method. 9) the orderly interplay between the parts of a system or structure. 10) The arrangement or mode of operation of something.

[43] This sounds like Justin’s “Logos” theology, or Ignatius’ “Word/Logos proceeding from silence”—but ANF Vol. 1, p. 62 says that He did NOT proceed from silence.

[44] In context, in Isaiah, “my Anointed the Lord” refers to Cyrus.

[45] Again, in context, in Isaiah, this refers to Cyrus.

[46] The subject is fully treated by Justin in his First Apology (chap 36 ff.).

[47] No man would have expected to see any such thing! If such a thing were to happen, it would be an undeniable intervention or visitation from God. See Against Heresies Book 3, chap 21, para. 6 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 453); also chap 19, para. 3 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 449).

[48] The transposition of “son” and “child” would seem to be an oversight: see however Just. M. Ap. 1, 35: and note that the whole passage is quoted differently in c. 56 below.

[49] We see that Irenaeus also quotes Isaiah 9:6 with “Mighty God” in Against Heresies Book 3, chap 19, para. 2 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 449), and in Book 4, chap 33, para. 11 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 509). Irenaeus also quoted Isaiah 9:6 with “Mighty God” back in para. 40 of The Demonstration (cf. para. 55). But then, in para. 56 of The Demonstration, we see Irenaeus quoting Isaiah 9:6 with “Angel of great counsel,” just as in Against Heresies Book 3, chap 16, para. 3 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 441). In Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho, chap 76 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 236), he quotes Isaiah 9:6 with “Angel of mighty counsel,” according to the LXX.

[50] This is Justin’s interpretation in Ap. 1, 35

[51] Justin M., Dial 101

[52] “Dispensation” here, seems to refer to a particular time period within the whole of history—or “His Story.” As used here, “dispensation” seems to refer to a divinely ordained moment in time (an act/episode) or to a period of time during God’s dealings with mankind. When used in this sense of the word, “dispensation” is closely associated with the word “economy,” and Irenaeus almost seems to use the two words as synonyms (see Against Heresies Book 1, chapter 10, para. 1), as if “economies”=dispensational arrangements or episodes.

[53] “Economy” is a literary term, referring to the arrangement of a poem, or the purpose of a particular episode within it.

[54] In Justin Martyr Dial. 86, the Rod from Jesse’s root is said to be Christ.

[55] In Against Heresies, Book 5, chap 33, para. 1-4 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 562-563), Irenaeus discusses the same question and, while recognizing that some persons give a symbolical interpretation, he inclines to look for a literal fulfillment. Here also he finds room for both interpretations. The passage of Papias that Irenaeus quotes in Against Heresies (about the marvelous productivity of the millennial period) ends with the statement that the animals will live in peace and concord and in subjection to man. This explains the reference to the Elders in our text.

[56] The passage is quoted in the Matthaean form, and ascribed to Isaiah from whom the first words come. In Matthew’s gospel, it is ascribed to “the prophet,” though some codices insert “Zechariah.” Justin Martyr quotes it differently (see his First Apology, chap 35; and his Dial. Chapter 53).

[57] See also Against Heresies, Book 2, chap 28, para. 5; Book 3, chap 19, para. 2. Cf. Justin Martyr’s Apology 1, 51; Dial. 43 and 76.

[58] See chapter 59: Christ was Spirit of God, and Christ’s body was made by His Spirit—and so the Word of God was the agent of His own incarnation.

[59] Isaiah 57:1 is given this same interpretation by Justin Martyr, making the same link between the Righteous Jesus and His righteous followers. See Apology 1, 48; Dial. 110.

[60] What Irenaeus means by this is unclear to me.

[61] Pilate was procurator of Judea for ten years (27–37). Claudius did not become emperor until A.D. 42. The statement here made is therefore inconsistent with the chronology of history: but it agrees with the view, expressed in Against Heresies Book 2, chap 32, para. 4 & 5 and Book 3, chap 18, para. 7, that our Lord reached ætatem seniorem, that is, an age between 40 and 50: a view which is largely based on John 8:57: “Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?” For these words seemed to Irenaeus to show that He could not have been much less than fifty at the time when they were spoken. See C. H. Turner’s article “Chronology” in Hastings’ Dict. of the Bible.

[62] This is one of the prophecies which Justin declared that the Jews had erased from their Scriptures. See ANF Vol. 1, p. 235 (where Justin, in Dial.  72, attributes it to Jeremiah); and see Irenaeus’ Against Heresies: ANF Vol. 1, p. 451 (where, in Bk 3, chap 20, para. 4, he attributes it to Isaiah); p. 493-494 (where, in Bk 4, chap 22, para. 1, he attributes it to Jeremiah); p. 506 (Bk 4, chap 33, para. 1—an allusion only); and then we see a couple variations of the quote attributed to no specific author, in p. 510 (Bk 4, chap 33, para. 12); p. 560 (Bk 5, chap 31, para. 1).

[63] This ancient teaching displays the universal reach of Christ’s redeeming work and God’s willingness that all should know it. Jesus’ preaching between His death & resurrection shows that even the most wicked generations in history are not beyond His pity or the scope of His redemption. So, there is still hope for the present generation that has sinned even more grievously than the Flood generation by refusing the greater Messenger of God (Jesus) and His message. But the last judgment is coming!

[64] “Nail my flesh” comes from the LXX. of Ps. 119:120, where A. V. has “My flesh trembleth for fear of thee.” Cf. The Epistle of Barnabas, near the end of chapter 5.

[65] See Against Heresies Book 4, para. 10 (ANF Vol. 1, p. 474)—Tertullian, Cyprian, and other early Fathers agree with Irenaeus in his exposition of this verse.

[66] This statement by Matthew (quoted by Irenaeus) seems to be a paraphrase of Zech 11:12-13. However, Matthew may also be combining two prophecies: one from Zechariah and the other from Jeremiah (see Jer 32:6-15, esp. v. 6-8). Another explanation may be that, because the Hebrew canon was divided into 3 sections (Law, Writings, & Prophets—cf. Lk 24:44), and because Jeremiah came first in the order of prophetic books, that for this reason, the Prophets were sometimes collectively referred to by his name.

[67] When Jesus was on the cross and asked for a drink, we read in John 19:29 that they gave Him sour wine or common wine to drink. But some variant manuscripts seem to have added the word “gall” in Jn 19:29, which is reflected in a couple places in chapter 7 of The Epistle of Barnabas (ANF Vol. 1, p. 141, where he writes of Jesus drinking vinegar and gall “when fixed to the cross.” This same thing is seen in para. 5 of The Gospel According to Peter (ANF Vol. 9, p. 7), where the writer seems to have understood Jn 19:29 to have mentioned both vinegar and gall, which was said to have been given to Jesus while He was on the cross.

[68] Irenaeus appears to be quoting Ps 69:21 here, which also seems to have been alluded to in Matthew 27:34, which mentions wine (or sour wine) mingled with gall—which was offered to Jesus before He was on the cross, and which He only took a taste of, but which He refused to drink.

[69] This is not a fresh quotation, but part of the comment on the passage before quoted: “The Lord . . . in Sinai in his sanctuary: he ascended upon high.” Irenaeus seems to have taken it as though it were “in Sion in his sanctuary.”

[70] Justin’s interpretation (Dial. 36) makes the humble form of our Lord’s humanity the reason why He is not at once recognized. The interpretation given by Irenaeus corresponds to that of the Ascension of Isaiah.

[71] See ANF Vol. 3, p. 384, 534; cf. Is 59:16—it wasn’t an angel.

[72] See Against Heresies, Book 4, chap 14, para. 2 (for ‘the Word passing through people’ in connection with “the voice of many waters”—Rev 1:15), and see also chap 33, para. 14.

[73] Lit. “with the formation (plasma) of God.”

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